Posts Tagged ‘type 2 diabetes diet’

Omega 3 fish oil may help prevent type 2 diabetes

Thursday, June 30th, 2011

Omega-3 boosts insulin resistance markers, suggests study

ncreased consumption of omega-3 fatty acids may help to improve important markers insulin resistance, which may lead to diabetes, says new research

The study, published in the European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology, evaluated the effects of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) on lipid profile and insulin resistance biomarkers. The researchers found that dietary intake of concentrated omega-3 capsules with meals resulted in improved lipid profiles and adiponectin levels, compared to placebo in a baseline condition, and an improvement of all insulin resistance parameters after an oral fat load.

“Omega-3 PUFA not only improved lipid profile in a baseline situation, but it also improved all insulin resistance parameters in a post-prandial situation simulated with an oral fat load. This is another important action,” said the researchers, led by Giuseppe Derosa from the University of Pavia, Italy.

Omega-3

The beneficial effects of dietary intake of omega-3 PUFA and cardiovascular disease first established following the observation that the Greenland Inuits had low mortality from coronary heart disease despite a fat-rich diet.

Since then, research haI.s demonstrated omega-3 fatty acids can improve the plasma lipid profiles, boost inflammatory responses, and reduce blood pressure, pulse pressure, and basal heart rate.

For the study, 167 patients (82 males and 85 females) were assigned to receive one gram of either placebo (a capsule containing sucrose, mannitol, and mineral salts) or omega-3 PUFA (concentrated EPA and DHA) three times a day, during meals, for six months.

Omega-3 PUFAs were reported to improve HDL-cholesterol and plasma triglyceride markers compared to placebo, while they had a neutral effect on total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol.

After an oral fat load, the researchers found that the group taking omega-3 capsules showed an improvement of all parameters, include insulin resistance biomarkers, while there was a neutral effect with placebo.

Derosa and his colleagues concluded that omega-3 intake “resulted in a greater improvement of lipid profile and ADN compared to placebo in a baseline condition, and an improvement of all insulin resistance parameters after an oral fat load.”

Source: European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology
Published online ahead of print, doi: 10.1002/ejlt.201000504
“Effects of n-3 PUFA on insulin resistance after an oral fat load”
Authors: G. Derosa, A.F.G. Cicero, E. Fogari, A. D’Angelo, A. Bonaventura, P.

Omega 3 fish oil may help activate anti-diabetic genes

Tuesday, March 8th, 2011

Fish oils may help to activate anti-diabetic genes

Polyunsaturated fatty acid fish oils may activate genes that regulate fat cell differentiation and glucose homeostasis, according to new research on mice.

The new study published in Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry suggests supplementation with omega3 fish oil activates the transcription factor PPARγ, increasing regulation of adipocytes and helps to maintain glucose homeostasis.

“We demonstrated that adipogenic genes and glucose metabolism genes were elevated in PPARγ transgenic mice when fed fish oil. This transgenic mouse model provided direct evidence to demonstrate omega 3 , especially EPA  regulate glucose homeostasis through interaction with PPARγ,” wrote the researchers, led by Dr Yu-Hsiang Yu from the National Taiwan University

Vital roles

Peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) is considered an important transcription factor in regulating fat cell (adipocyte) differentiation, and is also known to play a vital role in maintaining glucose homeostasis. The transcription factor is a target for many anti-diabetic drugs as activation promotes glucose dispersal.

Activation of PPARγ occurs through the binding of specific ligand molecules; however, polyunsaturated fatty acids such as arachidonic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are also known to have a high binding affinity for PPARγ.

Previous studies suggest that polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and their metabolites are able to regulate PPARγ activity, demonstrating that DHA treatment increases PPARγ-responsive gene expression in a cell model.

However, most research demonstrating PPARγ activity uses in vitro cell models and there is currently no direct evidence available to demonstrate that polyunsaturated fatty acids are able to activate PPARγ in vivo.

The authors said the current experiment was designed to determine the potential for PUFA, particularly EPA and DHA, to activate the function of PPARγ in vivo.

Wild-type and transgenic mice – with over expressed PPARγ –were supplemented with either fish oil or PPARγ ligands (rosiglitazone) for four months to investigate whether fish oils have similar effects to true PPARγ ligands in vivo.

Results

Dietary rosiglitazone fed mice had a significantly lower feed intake, but had no significant effect on body weight or fat pad weigh, whereas fish oil supplementation did not significantly decrease feed intake, but significantly decreased body and fat pad weight, found the researchers.

Dr. Yu and colleagues reported that adipogenic genes (LPL, FAT, SREBP-1c and FAS) were markedly up-regulated by rosiglitazone supplementation. Fish oil supplementation increased LPL and FAT, but not SREBP-1c or FAS; however, stained muscle sections indicated no lipid accumulation in skeletal muscle.

Researchers noted that transgenic mice fed a fish oil supplementation had increased expression of adipogenic and glucose uptake genes, leading to reduced plasma glucose concentration.

Natural regulator

The authors suggested that polyunsaturated fatty acids, particularly EPA and DHA, may serve as a natural regulator of glucose uptake in vivo, stating that such effects are mainly mediated through PPARγ activation.

“Our data demonstrated that the PPARγ-regulated glucose metabolism genes, GLUT-4 and ADN were dramatically increased in skeletal muscle of PPARγ transgenic mice when fed rosiglitazone or fish oil, suggesting activation … by either ligand,” concluded the authors.

Source: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry

“The function of porcine PPARγ and dietary fish oil effect on the expression of lipid and glucose metabolism related genes”

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