Posts Tagged ‘thrombosis’

TakeOmega3 provides protection and reduces risk of Cardiovascular Disease

Wednesday, December 12th, 2012

Abstract
The long chain omega 3 fatty acids EPA and DHA are associated with a plethora of health benefits, the most well- known of which is for the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disease (CVD). The aim of this study was to demonstrate in Croda employees the decrease in CVD risk after supplementation with omega 3 fatty acids. 32 participants were supplemented with a total of 1.6g EPA and DHA daily for a duration of 30 days, measuring whole blood omega 3 levels before and after the intervention period. The results demonstrated a 125% increase in mean whole blood omega 3 levels which equated to an 81% reduced risk of CVD related sudden death. In conclusion omega
3 concentrates were an effective strategy for improving whole blood omega 3 levels and reducing the subsequent risk of CVD.

Introduction
The health benefits of EPA and DHA are now well substantiated, with over 20, 000 studies published to date. Some of the strongest evidence for a beneficial role of these omega 3 fatty acids is for the treatment and prevention of heart disease. Much of this research has stemmed from early studies into the diet of Greenland Inuit’s, where very high intakes of EPA and DHA from an oily fish-rich diet were attributed to very low incidence of CVD1. Since then several studies have helped to corroborate these findings in large scale, randomised clinical trials (RCTs). The most notable of which are the GISSI-P2, JELIS3 and DART4 trials, all of which demonstrated a significant benefit of EPA and DHA in the secondary prevention of heart disease.
In addition to the clinical trials demonstrating a reduction in risk for the secondary prevention of heart disease, a number of large scale population trials have correlated increased blood levels of EPA and DHA to a reduced risk of heart disease6. Using this data it is possible to assess the relative risk of heart disease from any given whole blood omega 3 level.

Physiological role of very long chain omega 3 fatty acids Potential clinical benefit

Regulation of blood pressure Decreased blood pressure
Regulation of platelet function Decreased likelihood of thrombosis
Regulation of blood coagulation Decreased likelihood of thrombosis
Regulation of plasma triglyceride concentrations Decreased plasma triglyceride concentration
Regulation of vascular function Improved vascular reactivity
Regulation of cardiac rhythm Decreased arrhythmias
Regulation of inflammation Decreased inflammation
At the start of the study, eligible participant’s blood fatty acid levels were measured using a self-administered blood test kit (Nutrasource Diagnostics Inc.). After the initial blood test a 30 day supplementation period commenced consisting of two daily 1.2g TakeOmega3 TM soft gel capsules TakeOmega3 TM
This provided a total of 1600mg of EPA and 3000mg of DHA daily. The product is HFL tested and is uniquely manufactured in MHRA facilities in the UK. TakeOmega3 is Halal and contains no animal product or by product.
After the 30 day supplementation period a second blood test was conducted. Compliance was assessed by counting remaining capsules.
Cardiovascular disease risk was calculated using data from the Physicians Health Study7, in which blood EPA and DHA levels from 94 men in whom sudden death occurred as the first manifestation of CVD were compared to 184 matched controls. The relative risk of CVD-related sudden death was estimated by categorising each subject into quartiles, based on the distribution of fatty acid levels in the controls.
Results
In total 32 participants were available for analysis with 12 participants excluded for low blood volume. Out of the 32 participants included in the analysis 16 were male and 16 were female. 81% of participants were based in the UK with the remaining 19% of participants based in various countries throughout Europe, America and Asia.
Baseline Results
The mean omega 3 whole blood score for the group before supplementation was 4.85, which was classified as being at a high relative risk for CVD.
The distribution of participants across the 4 quartiles , with 56% of participants in the very high risk category, 19% in high risk, 9% in moderate risk and 16% in the low risk category.

22% of participants consumed at least one portion of oily fish on a weekly basis, 25% consumed at least one dietary supplement containing EPA and DHA daily and 53% consumed no supplements or oily fish. Whole blood omega 3 baseline scores for each group can be seen in
Participants who consumed no fish or supplements had a mean baseline whole blood omega 3 score of 3.89, which is classified as a very high relative risk.

Fish eaters had a mean score of 4.37 at baseline, placing them in the high relative risk category

Supplement takers had a mean score of 6.73 at baseline, placing them in the low relative risk category.
After the 30 day supplementation period mean whole blood omega 3 scores significantly increased across the whole
group from a level of 3.89 to 8.77 (p=<0.001), equivalent to a 125% increase. This moved the group from a high relative risk to a low relative risk of CVD related sudden death
Results also demonstrated significant increases for both fish eaters (p=<0.01) and supplement takers (p=<0.01). Fish eaters omega 3 scores went from a high relative risk to a low relative risk, whereas supplement takers remained in the low risk category yet still demonstrated a significant increase in omega 3 whole blood levels (p=>0.01). Participants who consumed no fish or supplements also demonstrated a significant increase (p=<0.001) taking them from a very high relative risk to a low relative risk.

Discussion
The baseline results demonstrated how the majority of participants (52%) were categorised as being at a very high relative risk of CVD, with a mean whole blood omega 3 score of 4.85 (high risk). These results are low compared to other studies that have assessed omega 3 whole blood levels in the general population. The Physicians Health Study7, from which the heart disease risk in this study is extrapolated from, demonstrated mean whole blood omega 3 levels for people who died from CVD related sudden death of 4.82 (high risk), however the control group had significantly higher levels with a mean score of 5.24 (moderate risk). The low results from this study are surprising considering the studied population are well educated on the benefits of long chain omega 3 fatty acids. This is likely reflected in the fact that a high proportion (25%) of participants were taking EPA and DHA supplements on a daily basis. If participants taking EPA and DHA supplements are removed the mean whole blood level drops to 4.1 (very high risk). Participants who ate at least one portion of oily fish a week had a baseline mean whole blood score of 4.37 (high risk).
This is an unexpectedly low result given the high EPA and DHA content of oily fish and may be indicative of the declining levels of long chain omega 3s in oily fish, which has been largely implicated to the replacement of fish oil based feed with vegetable oils in aquaculture. Baseline results from this study would suggest that the widely recommended intake of two portions of oily fish per week does not provide an adequate level of EPA and DHA in the diet, whereas supplementation is an effective way to increase whole blood omega 3.
After the 30 day intervention period there was a large increase in whole blood omega 3, taking the mean level from a high relative risk of CVD related to sudden death to a low risk of CVD related sudden death. Extrapolation of the results from the Physicians Health Study demonstrates an 81% reduced risk for participants who consumed 2 capsules of Takeomega3 daily . It is hypothesised that one of the main mechanisms of action for EPA and DHA in the treatment and prevention of CVD is through its anti-arrhythmic properties which subsequently reduces the risk of sudden death, the GISSI-P study demonstrated this effect in a randomised controlled intervention trial observing a 45% reduction in sudden death risk compared to control.
The results after the intervention period also demonstrated significant increases in whole blood omega 3 for participants taking no-fish or supplements, fish eaters and supplement takers. Participants who consumed no oily fish or omega 3 supplements went from the very high risk category to the low risk category after the intervention period, which equates to a 90% reduced risk of CVD related sudden death. Participants eating at least one portion of oily fish weekly showed similarly impressive increases, improving from the high risk to the low risk category, equivalent to an
81% reduced risk of sudden death. For supplement takers their baseline whole blood omega 3 levels were alreadycategorised as low risk but still demonstrated significant increases, with a 28% improvement in whole blood omega 3 levels, likely due to the unique levels of high EPA and low levels of DHA in a 90% concentration of the capsules used. Each capsule delivering 800mg EPA and 150 mg DHA . This formulation is believed to be the highest concentraton available in UK. TakeOmega3 is HFL tested and Halal and contains no animal products or by products.
In summary, baseline blood fatty acid measurements in Croda employees demonstrated low levels of whole blood omega 3 equivalent to a high risk of CVD-related sudden death. These levels improved after 30 days supplementation 2 capsules of TakeOmega3 by 125%, placing the mean whole blood omega 3 levels in the low risk category.

Omega-3 fish oil essential fatty acids Significantly Improves The Endothelial Function

Thursday, April 5th, 2012

Omega-3 fish oil essential fatty acids Significantly Improves The Endothelial Function

Wang Q, Liang X, Wang L, et al. Effect of omega-3 fatty acids supplementation on endothelial function: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Atherosclerosis. 2012 Apr;221(2):536-43.

OBJECTIVE:
Inverse association was reported between omega-3 fatty acids (FAs) supplementation and the risk of cardiovascular disease. Identifying the effect of omega-3 FAs on endothelial function may contribute to explain the association. We conducted a meta-analysis to assess the effect of omega-3 FAs supplementation on endothelial function, as measured by flow-mediated dilation (FMD) and endothelium-independent vasodilation (EIV).

METHODS:
Randomized placebo-controlled trials (RCTs) were identified from the databases of PubMed, EMBASE and Cochrane library by two investigators and the pooled effects were measured by weighted mean difference (WMD), together with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Subgroup and meta-regression analyses were used to explore the source of between-study heterogeneity.

RESULTS:
Totally 16 eligible studies involving 901 participants were finally included in meta-analysis. Compared with placebo, omega-3 FAs supplementation significantly increased FMD by 2.30% (95% CI: 0.89-3.72%, P=0.001), at a dose ranging from 0.45 to 4.5g/d over a median of 56days. Subgroup analyses suggested that the effect of omega-3 FAs on FMD might be modified by the health status of the participants or the dose of supplementation. Sensitivity analyses indicated that the protective effect of omega-3 on endothelial function was robust. No significant change in EIV was observed after omega-3 FAs supplementation (WMD: 0.57%; 95% CI: -0.88 to 2.01%; P=0.442).
he loss of proper endothelial function, is a hallmark for vascular diseases, and is often regarded as a key early event in the development of atherosclerosis. Impaired endothelial function, causing hypertension and thrombosis, is often seen in patients with coronary artery disease, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, as well as in smokers.
CONCLUSION:
Supplementation of omega-3 fatty acids significantly improves the endothelial function without affecting endothelium-independent dilation

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