Posts Tagged ‘omega 3 recommended by doctors’

Major depression may lead to Cardiovascular disease in older adults

Sunday, December 4th, 2011

Major depressive disorder (MDD) may lead to cardiovascular disease (CVD) in older adults, new research suggests.

Omega3 EPA is effective to treat medium to severe depression as well as that it offers unique cardio protective benefits

In secondary analysis of the Mechanisms and Outcomes of Silent Myocardial Ischemia (MOSMI) study, which included almost 900 participants with a mean age of 60 years, those with MDD showed a significantly slower short-term heart rate recovery time after exercising than their nondepressed counterparts.

According to the investigators, this delayed ability to return to a normal heart rate can be a powerful tool for predicting CV events and mortality.

“The delayed rate indicates a dysfunctional biological stress system, or a dysfunctional ‘flight or fight response,’ and we believe this can contribute to an increased risk for heart disease,” senior author Simon Bacon, PhD, codirector of the Montreal Behavioral Medicine Center and associate professor in the Department of Exercise Science at Concordia University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada,

The researchers note that the study’s results reinforce findings from previous research suggesting that those who suffer from MDD should be tested for CVD.

“Both of these health issues should be treated to minimize risk of severe consequences,” said Dr. Bacon.

The study was published in the November issue of Psychophysiology.

Dysfunctional Fight or Flight Response

According to the investigators, previous studies suggest that individuals suffering from depression may be twice as likely to suffer a heart attack as those who are not depressed.

In addition, a recent study reported  found that depression and previous suicide attempts were significant predictors of heart disease mortality in young adults.

“There have been 2 competing theories as to why depression is linked to CVD,” said lead author Jennifer Gordon, PhD candidate from the Psychology Department at McGill University in Montreal, in a release.

“Depressed people may have poorer health behaviors, which in turn lead to heart problems. The other possibility is physiological: a problem with the fight or flight response.”

In other words, it may be that people with depression have an autonomic nervous system (ANS) imbalance. The investigators note that heart rate variability is often used as a measure of ANS dysfunction.

“Our study is the first to examine the role of a dysfunctional fight or flight response in depression in a large population,” said Dr. Gordon.

The MOSMI trial was created to examine risk factors for silent ischemia and its effect on CV outcomes. For this analysis, the investigators evaluated data on 886 MOSMI participants (68.8% men; mean age, 60 years) who underwent a 2-day exercise stress test using a treadmill and a single photon emission computed tomography imaging protocol.

While at rest, at peak exercise point, and at 1 and 5 minutes postexercise, the participants had their heart rate and systolic and diastolic blood pressures measured.

The Primary Care Evaluation of Mental Disorders and Beck Depression Inventory II (BDI-II) were also administered to all patients, along with a questionnaire on sociodemographic data and medical history, including depressive symptoms and medication usage.

Slower Heart Rate Recovery

Overall, 5.8% of the participants were found to have MDD. These patients had a significantly slower heart rate recovery time at the 1-minute postexercise checkpoint compared with those who were not depressed (adjusted difference, 3.7 beats per minute; P = .026).

However, there were no significant differences between the 2 groups in heart rate recovery time at the 5-minute postexercise checkpoint.

“The classic fight or flight response is very adaptive over time. This means the system is easily activated but can also quickly shut itself off after a stress is removed. So it wasn’t surprising to see that the depressed patients’ heart rates were still quite elevated at the earlier mark, and not at the later mark,” Dr. Bacon said.

There were no significant between-group differences in either systolic or diastolic blood pressure recovery at either time.

In addition, BDI-II scores were found to not be predictive of CV recovery, suggesting that “subclinical levels of depression are not as reliably associated with ANS dysfunction,” write the researchers.

“This may explain some of the variance in previous studies examining the relation between depression and exercise recovery.”

Dr. Bacon said that overall, he would recommend that mental health clinicians who see patients with MDD should think about how the disorder affects other physical elements, and that cardiologists should consider asking about the mental health status in their heart patients.

“The key element here is to make sure these different disciplines have a little more awareness of what’s happening with the patient. Ultimately, what we want to do is make people’s lives better.”

Screening Essential

“There’s been a long-term interest in whether the autonomic dysregulation that people have found with depression could be the cause of both the development of heart disease and a worse prognosis in those with comorbid depression and heart disease,” Wayne Katon, MD, professor and vice chair in the Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences at the University of Washington Medical School in Seattle, told Medscape Medical News.

“This study is better than some of the other past studies because it measured major depression (not just depressive symptoms) and both long- and short-term return to normal heart rate. And they controlled for exercise capacity,” said Dr. Katon, who was not involved with this research.

He noted that most people with MDD have less exercise capacity, probably because the disorder is associated with an increased sedentary lifestyle.

“Many people with depression have inadequate treadmill tests. But this study used a type of test that was set up for people who were older and more sedentary. So they probably didn’t have to deal so much with people giving up and quitting before a good read could be recorded,” said Dr. Katon.

“Of course the study findings will need to be replicated, but it does suggest that depression is associated with at least short-term decreased ability of the heart to return to a normal rate.”

The main takeaway of this study, said Dr. Katon, is that patients with CVD should be screened for depression.

“We routinely screen for diabetes and other medical conditions because they worsen prognosis. Because there’s excellent evidence that depression also worsens prognosis, we should be screening for it,” he said.

“We’re also finding a bidirectionality between depression and chronic medical illness. So certainly screening our aging population for depression in general is important. And treating it better is essential.”

The study was supported by grants from the Heart and Stroke Foundation of Quebec and the Canadian Institutes of Health Research, and from the Canadian Hypertension Society

Omega 3 fish oil EPA linked to reduce incidence of endometriosis

Sunday, July 17th, 2011
The study — which is the largest to have investigated the link between diet and endometriosis risk and the first prospective study to identify a modifiable risk factor for the condition — found that while the total amount of fat in the diet did not matter, the type of fat did. Women who ate the highest amount of long-chain Omega-3 fatty acids were 22% less likely to be diagnosed with endometriosis than those who ate the least and that those who ate the most trans fats had a 48% increased risk, compared with those who ate the least.
The findings from 70,709 American nurses followed for 12 years, published online in Europe’s leading reproductive medicine journal Human Reproduction, not only suggest that diet may be important in the development of endometriosis, but they also provide more evidence that a low fat diet is not necessarily the healthiest and further bolster the case for eliminating trans fats from the food supply, said the study’s leader, Dr. Stacey Missmer, an assistant professor of obstetrics, gynaecology and reproductive biology at Brigham and Women’s Hospital and Harvard Medical School in Boston, Massachusetts, USA.
“Millions of women worldwide suffer from endometriosis. Many women have been searching for something they can actually do for themselves, or their daughters, to reduce the risk of developing the disease, and these findings suggest that dietary changes may be something they can do. The results need to be confirmed by further research, but this study gives us a strong indication that we’re on the right track in identifying food rich in Omega-3 oils as protective for endometriosis and trans fats as detrimental,” Dr. Missmer added.
What is endometriosis  What are symptoms of endometrioisis
Endometriosis occurs when pieces of the womb lining, or endometrium, is found outside the womb. This tissue behaves in the same way as it does in the womb — growing during the menstrual cycle in response to oestrogen in anticipation of an egg being fertilized and shedding as blood when there’s no pregnancy. However, when it grows outside the womb, it is trapped and cannot leave the body as menstruation. Some women experience no symptoms, but for many it is very incapacitating, causing severe pain. The tissue can also stick to other organs, sometimes leading to infertility. It afflicts about 10% of women. The cause is poorly understood and there is no cure. Symptoms are traditionally treated with pain medication, hormone drugs or surgery.
In the study, the researchers collected information from 1989 to 2001 on 70,709 women enrolled in the U.S. Nurses Health Study cohort. They used three food-frequency questionnaires spaced at four-year intervals to record the women’s usual dietary habits over the preceding year. They categorized consumption of the various types of dietary fat into five levels and related that information to later confirmed diagnoses of endometriosis. A total of 1,199 women were diagnosed with the disease by the end of the study. The results were adjusted to eliminate any influence on the findings from factors such as total calorie intake, body mass index, number of children borne and race.
Long-chain Omega-3 fatty acids are found mostly in oily fish. They have been linked to reduced heart disease risk. In the study, the highest contributor was mayonnaise and full-fat salad dressing, followed by fatty fish such as tuna, salmon and mackerel.
Trans fats are artificially produced through hydrogenation, which turns liquid vegetable oil into solid fat. Used in thousands of processed foods, from snacks to ready-meals, they have already been linked to increased heart disease risk. Some countries and municipalities have banned them. The major sources of trans fats in this study were fried restaurant foods, margarine and crackers.
“Women tend to go to the Internet in particular to look for something they can do. The majority of the dietary recommendations they find there are the ones prescribed for heart health, but until now, those had not been evaluated specifically for endometriosis,” Dr. Missmer said. “This gives them information that is more tailored and provides evidence for another disease where it is the type of fat in the diet, rather than the total amount, that is important.”
Besides confirming the finding, a next step could be to investigate whether dietary intervention that reduces trans fats and increases Omega-3 oils can alleviate symptoms in women who already have endometriosis, Dr. Missmer added.
The U.S. National Institutes of Health funded the study.

Heart Failure and Omega3 fish oil Fatty Acids Prevent Pressure Overload–Induced Cardiac Fibrosis Through Activation of Cyclic GMP/Protein Kinase G Signaling in Cardiac Fibroblasts

Sunday, July 10th, 2011

Background—Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid) from fish oil ameliorate cardiovascular diseases. However, little is known about the effects of ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on cardiac fibrosis, a major cause of diastolic dysfunction and heart failure. The present study assessed the effects of ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on cardiac fibrosis.

Methods and Results—We assessed left ventricular fibrosis and pathology in mice subjected to transverse aortic constriction after the consumption of a fish oil or a control diet. In control mice, 4 weeks of transverse aortic constriction induced significant cardiac dysfunction, cardiac fibrosis, and cardiac fibroblast activation (proliferation and transformation into myofibroblasts). Dietary supplementation with fish oil prevented transverse aortic constriction–induced cardiac dysfunction and cardiac fibrosis and blocked cardiac fibroblast activation. In heart tissue, transverse aortic constriction increased active transforming growth factor-β1 levels and phosphorylation of Smad2. In isolated adult mouse cardiac fibroblasts, transforming growth factor-β1 induced cardiac fibroblast transformation, proliferation, and collagen synthesis. Eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid increased cyclic GMP levels and blocked cardiac fibroblast transformation, proliferation, and collagen synthesis. Eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid blocked phospho-Smad2/3 nuclear translocation. DT3, a protein kinase G inhibitor, blocked the antifibrotic effects of eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid. Eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid increased phosphorylated endothelial nitric oxide synthase and endothelial nitric oxide synthase protein levels and nitric oxide production.

Conclusion—Omega-3 fatty acids prevent cardiac fibrosis and cardiac dysfunction by blocking transforming growth factor-β1–induced phospho-Smad2/3 nuclear translocation through activation of the cyclic GMP/protein kinase G pathway in cardiac fibroblasts.

From the Cardiovascular Health Research Center at Sanford Research/University of South Dakota, Sioux Falls.

Depression study confirms effectiveness of EPA as anti depressant treatment

Tuesday, March 15th, 2011

The use of Omega-3 supplements is effective among patients with major depression who do not have anxiety disorders, according to a study directed by Dr. François Lespérance of the Centre de recherche du Centre hospitalier at the Université de Montréal (CRCHUM), head of CHUM’s Department of Psychiatry and a professor at the Université de MontréalThe study was published June 15 in the online Journal of Clinical Psychiatry.Take Omega3 is the ideal formulation to treat depression due to each capsule containing 750mg EPA and 50mg DHA it is an 85% concentrate which is the highest currently available.

This was the largest study ever conducted assessing Omega-3’s efficacy in treating major depression. It was carried out in conjunction with researchers from centres affiliated with the UdM’s Réseau universitaire intégré de santé (RUIS), from McGill University, Université Laval in Quebec City and Queen’s University in Kingston, Ontario.

Initial analyses failed to clearly demonstrate the effectiveness of Omega-3 for all patients taking part in the study. Other analyses, however, revealed that Omega-3 improved depression symptoms in patients diagnosed with depression unaccompanied by an anxiety disorder. Efficacy for these patients was comparable to that generally observed with conventional antidepressant treatment.

From October 2005 to January 2009, 432 male and female participants with major unipolar depression were recruited to take part in this randomized, double-blind study (neither patients nor researchers knew which capsules patients received)Some 11% of men and 16% of women in Canada will suffer from major depression at some point in their lives, making this disorder one of our society’s leading public health issues. Depression, which is now the world’s fourth leading cause of morbidity and death is expected to move up to the number two position by 2020. “Despite significant progress in neuroscience over the past two decades, depression is difficult to treat,” Dr. Lespérance noted. In view of the large number of patients who stop taking their medications in the first few months of treatment and those who refuse such treatment due to fear of stigmatization or side effects, it comes as no surprise that a large number of patients suffering from major depression use alternative treatments offered outside the healthcare system. “Many of these treatments have not been adequately evaluated. That is why it was important to assess the efficacy of Omega-3, one of the most popular alternative approaches,” he added.

Epidemiological and neurobiological studies have suggested that a relative deficit in polyunsaturated fatty acids of the Omega-3 group may predispose individuals to psychological disorders such as depression. Further, several preliminary clinical studies based on small numbers of patients have suggested that Omega-3 supplements with high concentrations of EPA can help to reduce symptoms of depression among patients who fail to respond to an initial antidepressant treatment. These studies have not, however, convinced the entire scientific community. A broader study was needed to acquire further knowledge about the properties and efficacy of high-quality Omega-3 supplements among patients suffering from major depression.udy.

It is important to note that the study assessed use of Omega-3 for eight weeks, at doses of 1050 mg of EPA and 150 mg of DHA each day. It is currently unknown whether taking higher doses or taking supplements over a longer period would yield different results.

These encouraging results show that use of EPA is effective among patients with unipolar depression unaccompanied by an anxiety disorder. Additional research directly comparing Omega-3 with conventional antidepressants could more clearly confirm their usefulness for patients suffering from depression

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