Posts Tagged ‘fish oil’

Research shows that omega3 fish oil less than 80% concentrate are not effective at reducing triglyceride levels

Sunday, April 29th, 2012

t research has shown that lower concentrates omega 3 fish oil are not effective especially at reducing triglyceride levels

A study conducted in Europe showed the following that in order for omega3 to be effective in this area it required a concentration of at least 80% and above – none of the products by Nordic Naturals fall into this category or indeed any of those listed on the spreadsheet . The study concluded that “low concentration makes fish oil products impreactical for therapeutic use ”

The study looked at the Omega-3 uptake of three different Omega-3 concentrations:
62% Omega-3 (often sold as ‘Triple Strength’)
80% Omega-3
85% Omega-3
They did not test the regular ‘drug store grade’ fish oil (30% Omega-3) because it was ‘impractical’ to expect anyone to take 10 pills a day.

Every patient in the study took 5,100 mg (5.1 grams) of Omega-3 per day. However the big differentiate was the concentration levels

62% Did Not lower triglycerides

80% Did lower triglycerides

85% Did lower triglycerides

- there is an argument that omega3 at 62% Omega-3 is not pharmaceutical grade , however 80% to 85% are indeed

What was shown when they evaluated the results of the study was the following

A
There was a significant increase in blood EPA omega3 levels just after 14 days

B

The concentration levels of EPA were highest in the group taking the 85% concentration – the levels were lower in 62% and 80% group

C

The were no differences in the levels of DHA omega3 levels across the 3 groups

D

The most important factor was that the 62% omega3 concentrate did NOT lower triglycerides only the 80% and 85% omega3 fish oil did

RESULT: Even though everyone took the same amount of Omega-3, the chart below shows that 80% and 85% oils were better ‘absorbed.’

This is why it’s critical to take omega3 products such as TakeOmega3 that provide at least 80% Omega-3 concentrations.TakeOmega3 has 990mg omega3 and is an with 85% EPA /DHA concentration
It is very important that most fish oil supplements marketed as pharmaceutical grade or triple strength are only 60% omega 3 concentration

RESULT: Percent change in Triglycerides after taking 62%, 80% and 85% Omega-3 fish oil.

‘Triple Strength’ Fish Oil reduced triglycerides by less than 5% after two weeks. 80% and 85% Omega-3 oils reduced triglycerides by about 20%.
Since the FDA and other agencies does not regulate the terms like ‘pharmaceutical grade,’or ‘Triple Strength,’ anyone can call their product anything they want.However to gain CPP certification a product must fully comply with the conditions as stated by the MHRA – TakeOmega3 offers the highest concentration EPA of any formulation and is certificated by the MHRA

The reason the low concentrates dont work specifically with regards triglyceride reduction is very simple – yes its 62% omega3 but its also almost 40% or one-third non omega3 fats – whereas any oil that is 85% EPA and DHA such as TakeOmega3 will also be 90% in total omega3 as a result there is liitle if any other fatty acids. Omega-3 fats are a poor substrate for synthesis for triglycerides and Omega-3 also inhibit enzyme, acyl CoA:1,2-diacylglycerol acyltransferase due to the natural affinity Omega-3 has for this enzyme.

Harvard Medical School. Charles Serhan, a Harvard Medical School expert on Omega-3:
“The kind of benefits seen in most of the clinical trials with Omega-3 generally have involved much higher doses than you see recommended on supplement labels.”

Wall Street Journal. “Fish-Oil Doses Can Be Hard To Swallow,” David Stipp in Wall Street Journal Special Report, January 8, 2008:
“In trials aimed at lowering triglycerides, patients took three grams of Omega-3 per day. You would have to pop a daily dozen of the typical Omega-3 capsules on the market to get that.”

Omega 3 pharmaceutical grade fish oil EPA reduces LDL cholesterol levels

Sunday, April 29th, 2012

Omega 3 EPA reduces LDL cholesterol levels –

New clinical study results presented at the American Heart Association Scientific Sessions show that the long-chain omega-3 fatty acid EPA (eicosapentaenoic acid), helped significantly reduce small dense LDL (bad) cholesterol levels.

“This study suggests that supplementation with the omega-3 fatty acid EPA may present unique benefits for cardiovascular health,” said Sujata K. Bhatia, M.D., Ph.D., research associate with DuPont. “EPA was shown to have advantageous effects on several biomarkers, including LDL cholesterol, small dense LDL, and lp-PLA2.”

EPA is a long-chain fatty acid that is found primarily in cold water, fatty fish like sardines anchovies mackerel as well as some omega-3 fatty acid such as TakeOmega3 which has 750 mg EPA per capsule and is the highest grade omega 3 available in UK . A growing body of evidence suggests that EPA is the long-chain omega-3 that supports heart health.

The study, conducted by Cardiovascular Research Associates and sponsored by DuPont, was conducted among 110 healthy individuals comparing the effects of EPA supplements to DHA (docosahexaenoic acid) supplements on cardiovascular health. The participants were placed into four study groups and examined over a six week period. During that time, each group was monitored while taking: EPA 600 mg per day; EPA 1,800 mg per day; DHA 600 mg per day; and an olive oil placebo.

The study found that in the 1,800mg EPA group, there were significant reductions of 7 percent for small dense low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, and 6 percent for lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (lp-PLA2). lp-PLA2 is an enzyme involved in vascular inflammation.

In contrast, the 600mg DHA group showed a significant increase in total small dense LDL cholesterol in both the fasting and fed state of 14.2 percent and 16.3 percent respectively.

The study results will be featured during the American Heart Association Conference poster session in Chicago

Omacor contains 375mg DHA just two capsules exceeds the 600mg DHA level that shows an increase in LDL C – on a 4 capsule per dose dose that would deliver 1500 mg of DHA which is more than double the dose that showed a 14.2 % and 16.3% increase in small dense LDL

Omega 3 EPA the key omega3 to tackle obesity and type 2 diabetes

Saturday, October 8th, 2011

A major risk factor for cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes
and other pro inflammatory life-threatening conditions is the current obesity epidemic which is endemic in developed nations such as United States , United Kingdom , UAE where it’s fueled in large part by excessive consumption of a fat-rich “Western style diet.” The main issue is the increase consumption of saturated fats which are pro inflammatory ie animal fats , sunflower oil , corn oil etc Animal-derived saturated fats like lard and butter are strongly linked to adverse health effects, but unsaturated and polyunsaturated fats from plants and cold-water fish like salmon and mackerel are not. In fact, eating oily fish which is rich in omega3 especially EPA produces beneficial health effects and can reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease and diabetes
For biomedical investigators, the enduring question has been why saturated and unsaturated fatty acids produce such diametrically opposed health effects. Now, in a paper published in the Sept. 30 issue of the journal Cell, researchers at the University of California San Diego School of Medicine and colleagues offer an explanation, and a framework that could lead to dietary supplements designed to treat obesity at the molecular level.

“These findings not only explain the long-standing enigma regarding the differential health effects of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids,” said senior author Michael Karin, PhD, Distinguished Professor of Pharmacology in UC San Diego’s Laboratory of Gene Regulation and Signal Transduction, “they also provide improved tools and a mechanistic framework for the potential development of dietary supplements to treat obesity, estimated to be worth billions of dollars per year.”

Senior author Karin, first author Ryan G. Holzer, PhD, formerly a graduate student in Karin’s lab and now at the Mayo Clinic, and colleagues began with the observation that saturated fatty acids, such as palmitic acid, are potent activators of Jun kinases (JNK), key regulatory molecules implicated in the development of type 2 diabetes, insulin resistance, obesity and atherosclerosis. However, unsaturated fatty acids such as palmitoleic acid (POA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) not only do not activate JNK, but actually block JNK activation by palmitic acid.

Palmitic acid and POA differ in molecular structure by the presence of a single unsaturated bond (the absence of two hydrogen atoms) in POA. Cellular membrane fluidity is decreased upon incorporation of saturated fatty acids, which possess rigid hydrocarbon tails, but increased by the incorporation of unsaturated fatty acids with “bent” hydrocarbon tails.

Postulating that the membrane is the only cellular structure that can discriminate between all of these fatty acids, the scientists searched for membrane-associated protein kinases that could account for the differential effects on JNK activity. They ultimately identified c-Src, a membrane-associated tyrosine kinase, as the molecule responsible for activation of JNK by palmitic acid and other saturated fatty acids. They also discovered that saturated fatty acids “push” c-Src into membrane sub-domains of reduced fluidity and increased rigidity, where it accumulates in an activated form that eventually leads to JNK activation.

By contrast, POA and EPA prevent these changes in the membrane distribution of c-Src and — by blocking c-Src aggregation — they inhibit its activation by saturated fatty acids.

Most of the research was conducted using cultured cells (fibroblasts) treated with individual or combined fatty acids, but the scientists also fed mice a high-fat diet (in which 60 percent of the calories were fat-derived) and reported similar c-Src accumulation within membrane subdomains of increased rigidity and JNK activation.

Currently, polyunsaturated fatty acids, such as EPA and structurally-related omega-3 fatty acids are used in the treatment of hyperlipidemia (high blood cholesterol levels) and may be effective in the treatment or prevention of type 2 diabetes. Karin said understanding how EPA works could lead to the identification of even more potent EPA-like molecules.

Funding for this research came from the National Institutes of Health, the Superfund Basic Research Program and the American Diabetes Association.

Co-authors of the paper are Eek-Joong Park, Ning Li, Helen Tran, Monica Chen and Crystal Choi, Laboratory of Gene Regulation and Signal Transduction, Department of Pharmacology, UC San Diego; and Giovanni Solinas, Laboratory of Metabolic Stress Biology, Department of Medicine, Physiology, University of Fribourg, Switzerlan

Omega-3 Fatty Acids For Neuropathic Pain

Thursday, August 18th, 2011

OBJECTIVE:
The aim of this case series study was to investigate and report on patients with neuropathic pain who responded to treatment with omega-3 fatty acids.

METHODS:
Methods: Five patients with different underlying diagnoses including cervical radiculopathy, thoracic outlet syndrome, fibromyalgia, carpal tunnel syndrome, burn injury were treated with high oral doses of omega 3 fish oil (varying from 2400-7200 mg/day of EPA-DHA). Outcome measures were obtained pretreatment and posttreatment. These included validated surveys (short-form McGill Pain questionnaire, DN4 neuropathic pain scale, Pain Detect Questionnaire), objective clinical tools (Jamar grip strength, Lafayette dynamometry, tender point algometry) and EMG Nerve Conduction studies.

RESULTS:
These patients had clinically significant pain reduction, improved function as documented with both subjective and objective outcome measures up to as much as 19 months after treatment initiation. No serious adverse effects were reported.

CONCLUSIONS:
This first-ever reported case series suggests that omega-3 fatty acids may be of benefit in the management of patients with neuropathic pain. Further investigations with randomized controlled trials in a more specific neuropathic pain population would be warranted.

Omega-3 EPA DHA essential fatty acid for Bipolar Disorder: Meta-Analyses of Use in Mania and Bipolar Depression

Thursday, August 11th, 2011

Omega-3 for Bipolar Disorder: Meta-Analyses of Use in Mania and Bipolar Depression

Jerome Sarris, PhD, MHSc; David Mischoulon, MD, PhD; and Isaac Schweitzer, MD

J Clin Psychiatry
10.4088/JCP.10r06710
Copyright 2011 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

Objective: Studies using augmentation of pharmacotherapies with omega-3 in bipolar disorder have been conducted; however, to date a specific meta-analysis in this area has not been published. Thus, we present the significant findings from meta-analyses of omega-3 in the treatment of bipolar depression and bipolar mania.

Data Sources: PubMed, CINAHL, Web of Science, and Cochrane Library databases were searched for clinical trials up to September 1, 2010, using the search terms bipolar disorder OR bipolar depression OR bipolar mania OR mania OR hypomania OR cyclothymia with the search terms omega 3 OR essential fatty acids OR polyunsaturated fatty acids OR DHA OR EPA OR fish oil OR flax oil. Clinical trial registries and gray literature (published or unpublished data not readily accessible via main databases) were also searched.

Data Selection: The analysis included randomized controlled studies 4 weeks or longer, with a sample size > 10, written in English, using omega-3 for diagnosed bipolar depression or mania. No criteria were set for age, gender, or ethnicity.

Data Extraction: A random-effects model was used. The model analyzed the standard mean difference between treatment and placebo between baseline and endpoint, combining the effect size (Hedges g) data. Funnel plot and heterogeneity analyses (I2) were also performed.

Data Synthesis: The findings of 5 pooled datasets (n = 291) on the outcome of bipolar depression revealed a significant effect in favor of omega-3 (P = .029), with a moderate effect size of 0.34. On the outcome of mania, 5 pooled datasets (n = 291) revealed a nonsignificant effect in favor of omega-3 (P = .099), with an effect size of 0.20. Minor heterogeneity between studies on the outcome of bipolar depression was found (I2 = 30%; P = .213), which was not present on the outcome of bipolar mania (I2 = 0%; P = .98). Funnel plot symmetry suggested no significant likelihood of publication bias. Meta-regression analysis between sample size and effect size, however, revealed that studies with smaller sample sizes had larger effect sizes (P = .05).

Conclusions: The meta-analytic findings provide strong evidence that bipolar depressive symptoms may be improved by adjunctive use of omega-3. The evidence, however, does not support its adjunctive use in attenuating mania.

J Clin Psychiatry

Submitted: November 10, 2010; accepted December 13, 2010.

Online ahead of print: August 12, 2011 (doi:10.4088/JCP.10r06710).

A diet high in Essential Fatty Acids Omega 3 EPA and DHA during pregnancy reduce risk of Cancer

Thursday, August 4th, 2011

Researchers have suggested that if an expectant mother increases her consumption of foods high in omega3 essential fatty acids EPA /DHA or nutrients during her pregnancy, she can potentially reduce the risk of breast cancer in her female offspring.

The research delves into breast cancer risk reductions attributed to the fetus when the mother, while pregnant, increases omega 3 essential fatty acids EPA and DHA within her diet or consumes dietary methyl nutrients (methionine, choline, folate and vitamin B12). Some findings hypothesize that these diet augmentations may even prevent breast cancer from ever developing in the offspring.

The study looked at 45 pregnant rats and randomized them into two groups: one to receive a control and the other to be fed a methyl-supplemented diet. Once the pups were born, they were separated into three additional groups depending on the feeding regime of their mother. When the female pups reached a specific age, they were exposed to a chemical that induced breast cancer and researchers charted when the first tumour appeared and measured all tumour sizes and volumes.

Results demonstrated that the offspring from the methyl-supplemented diet group showed a decrease in tumour incidence and growth when compared to the control group. Also, they had fewer tumours and fewer tumours that multiplied.

“The conclusions of this study suggest that we may be able to prevent the development of breast cancer in daughters of women at risk for breast cancer by supplementing the mother’s diet during pregnancy,” said Dr. Chung Park, North Dakota State University. Essential Fatty Acid Omega 3 EPA has been shown to inhibit tumour development / growth in adult subjects

The research was presented at the Era of Hope conference, a scientific meeting hosted by the Department of Defense Breast Cancer Research Program (BCRP).

Omega 3 Fish Oil EPA and DHA on Metabolic Rate, Body Composition and Coritsol natural sports nutrition

Friday, July 29th, 2011

Effects of supplemental omega 3 fish oil on resting metabolic rate, body composition, and salivary cortisol in healthy adults. Journal International Soc Sports Nutrition . Oct 8;7:31.
BACKGROUND: To determine the effects of supplemental Omega 3 fish oil (FO) on resting metabolic rate (RMR), body composition, and cortisol production in healthy adults.

METHODS: A total of 44 men and women (34 ± 13y, mean+SD) participated in the study. All testing was performed first thing in the morning following an overnight fast. Baseline measurements of RMR were measured using indirect calorimetry using a facemask, and body composition was measured using air displacement plethysmography. Saliva was collected via passive drool and analyzed for cortisol concentration using ELISA. Following baseline testing, subjects were randomly assigned in a double blind manner to one of two groups: 4 g/d of Safflower Oil (SO); or 4 g/d of FO supplying 1,600 mg/d eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and 800 mg/d docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). All tests were repeated following 6 wk of treatment. Pre to post differences were analyzed using a treatment X time repeated measures ANOVA, and correlations were analyzed using Pearson’s r.

RESULTS: Compared to the SO group, there was a significant increase in fat free mass following treatment with FO (FO = +0.5 ± 0.5 kg, SO = -0.1 ± 1.2 kg, p = 0.03), a significant reduction in fat mass (FO = -0.5 ± 1.3 kg, SO = +0.2 ± 1.2 kg, p = 0.04), and a tendency for a decrease in body fat percentage (FO = -0.4 ± 1.3% body fat, SO = +0. 3 ± 1.5% body fat, p = 0.08). No significant differences were observed for body mass (FO = 0.0 ± 0.9 kg, SO = +0.2 ± 0.8 kg), RMR (FO = +17 ± 260 kcal, SO = -62 ± 184 kcal) or respiratory exchange ratio (FO = -0.02 ± 0.09, SO = +0.02 ± 0.05). There was a tendency for salivary cortisol to decrease in the FO group (FO = -0.064 ± 0.142 μg/dL, SO = +0.016 ± 0.272 μg/dL, p = 0.11). There was a significant correlation in the FO group between change in cortisol and change in fat free mass (r = -0.504, p = 0.02) and fat mass (r = 0.661, p = 0.001).

CONCLUSION: 6 wk of supplementation with omega 3 fish oil significantly increased lean mass and decreased fat mass. These changes were significantly correlated with a reduction in salivary cortisol following Omega 3 fish oil treatment.

Consumption Of Omega-3 essential Fatty acid fish oils Decrease Homocysteine Levels In Diabetic Patients

Friday, July 29th, 2011

Consumption Of Omega-3 FAs Decrease Homocysteine Levels In Diabetic Patients
Pooya S, Jalali MD, Jazayery AD, et al. The efficacy of omega-3 fatty acid supplementation on plasma homocysteine and malondialdehyde levels of type 2 diabetic patients. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2009;18.
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Cardiovascular diseases are the major cause of mortality among diabetic patients. The concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA) and homocysteine is believed to play a role in cardiovascular diseases. Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation could be effective in some diabetes complications and in the control of the glycemic index. However, it may increase lipid peroxidation. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of omega-3 fatty acids on the concentration of homocysteine and MDA in diabetic patients.

METHODS AND RESULTS: A randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial was conducted on 81 patients with type 2 diabetes. The patients were randomly assigned to either the treatment or control groups. Each subject received three capsules of omega-3 fatty acids or a placebo every day for a period of 2months. The two groups were similar in terms of body mass index and food intake. At the beginning of the study and after 2months of supplementation their levels of HbA(1)c, homocysteine, MDA, C-reactive protein (CRP), total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and fasting blood sugar (FBS) were determined. Due to omega-3 fatty acid supplementation, homocysteine was changed significantly in both treatment and control groups up to -3.10mumol/L and 0.10mumol/L respectively, and HbA(1)c decreased by 0.75% in the treatment group and increased by 0.26% in the control group. However, the changes in fasting blood sugar (FBS), malondialdehyde (MDA), C-reactive protein (CRP), total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol levels were not significant.

CONCLUSION: The consumption of omega-3 fatty acid supplements (3g/day) for 2months decreases the levels of homocysteine in diabetic patients with no change in FBS, MDA and CRP levels.

Low plasma levels of Omega3 essential fatty acid EPA are associated with bipolar disorder

Friday, July 29th, 2011

Low plasma levels of EPA are associated with bipolar disorder
Sublette M, Bosetti F, DeMar J, et al. Plasma free polyunsaturated fatty acid levels are associated with symptom severity in acute mania. Bipolar Disorder / Manic Depression
OBJECTIVES: Nutritionally essential polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have been implicated as potentially important factors in mood disorders. For instance, n-3 PUFA supplementation is reported to improve outcomes in major depressive disorder and bipolar disorder. However, the role of PUFAs in acute mania has been minimally investigated. We performed a pilot study to compare plasma levels of free (non-esterified) and esterified PUFAs between patients in an acute manic episode and healthy volunteers, and to explore associations between symptom severity and levels of fatty acids and of the arachidonic acid metabolite, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2).

METHODS: Patients (n=10) who were medication-free for at least two weeks and seeking inpatient admission for an acute manic episode were compared with healthy volunteers (n=10). Symptom severity was assessed at admission and after six weeks of naturalistic treatment. Fasting baseline free and esterified plasma levels of docosahexaneoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n-3), arachidonic acid (AA,20:4n-6) and the AA metabolite PGE2 were determined, and PGE2 levels were tested again at six weeks.

RESULTS: No between-group differences were found in levels of individual or total fatty acids, or of PGE2. Among subjects, manic symptom severity correlated negatively with levels of free AA and free EPA, and positively with the free AA:EPA ratio. PGE2 levels did not differ between groups or in subjects pre- and post-treatment.

CONCLUSIONS: Our preliminary results suggest that, in susceptible persons, low plasma levels of free EPA compared with AA are related to the severity of mania.

Omega-3 Fatty Acid Supplementation And Reduction Of Traumatic axonal Injury

Thursday, July 28th, 2011

Department of Neurosurgery, West Virginia University School of Medicine, Morgantown, West Virginia, USA. jmills@hsc.wvu.edu
Abstract
OBJECT:
Traumatic brain injury remains the most common cause of death in persons under 45 years of age in the Western world. Recent evidence from animal studies suggests that supplementation with omega-3 fatty acid (O3FA) (particularly eicosapentaenoic acid [EPA] and docosahexaenoic acid [DHA]) improves functional outcomes following focal neural injury. The purpose of this study is to determine the benefits of O3FA supplementation following diffuse axonal injury in rats.

METHODS:
Forty adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were used. Three groups of 10 rats were subjected to an impact acceleration injury and the remaining group underwent a sham-injury procedure (surgery, but no impact injury). Two of the groups subjected to the injury were supplemented with 10 or 40 mg/kg/day of O3FA; the third injured group served as an unsupplemented control group. The sham-injured rats likewise received no O3FA supplementation. Serum fatty acid levels were determined from the isolated plasma phospholipids prior to the injury and at the end of the 30 days of supplementation. After the animals had been killed, immunohistochemical analysis of brainstem white matter tracts was performed to assess the presence of β-amyloid precursor protein (APP), a marker of axonal injury. Immunohistochemical analyses of axonal injury mechanisms-including analysis for caspase-3, a marker of apoptosis; RMO-14, a marker of neurofilament compaction; and cytochrome c, a marker of mitochondrial injury-were performed.

RESULTS:
Dietary supplementation with a fish oil concentrate rich in EPA and DHA for 30 days resulted in significant increases in O3FA serum levels: 11.6% ± 4.9% over initial levels in the 10 mg/kg/day group and 30.7% ± 3.6% in the 40 mg/kg/day group. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed significantly (p < 0.05) decreased numbers of APP-positive axons in animals receiving O3FA supplementation: 7.7 ± 14.4 axons per mm(2) in the 10 mg/kg/day group and 6.2 ± 11.4 axons per mm(2) in the 40 mg/kg/day group, versus 182.2 ± 44.6 axons per mm(2) in unsupplemented animals. Sham-injured animals had 4.1 ± 1.3 APP-positive axons per mm(2). Similarly, immunohistochemical analysis of caspase-3 expression demonstrated significant (p < 0.05) reduction in animals receiving O3FA supplementation, 18.5 ± 28.3 axons per mm(2) in the 10 mg/kg/day group and 13.8 ± 18.9 axons per mm(2) in the 40 mg/kg/day group, versus 129.3 ± 49.1 axons per mm(2) in unsupplemented animals.

CONCLUSIONS:
Dietary supplementation with a fish oil concentrate rich in the O3FAs EPA and DHA increases serum levels of these same fatty acids in a dose-response effect. Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation significantly reduces the number of APP-positive axons at 30 days postinjury to levels similar to those in uninjured animals. Omega-3 fatty acids are safe, affordable, and readily available worldwide to potentially reduce the burden of traumatic brain injury.

Great Britain Flag
Made in the UK - Take Omega 3 Suspendisse lacinia ultricies justo, at ultricies nisi tempus ac. Cras sed vehicula metus. Phasellus...