Posts Tagged ‘fat burner’

Omega 3 fish oil and benefits for athletes

Wednesday, July 20th, 2011

Omega 3 essential fatty acid EPA Reduces Inflammation
Athletes often undergo high-intensity training that increases inflammation and the risk for pain and injury. This can decrease exercise performance and the ability to recover properly. Omega-3 fatty acids fish oil specifically EPA iseffective in reducing inflammation. Researcher Dr. William Smith from the University of Massachusetts found that omega-3 fatty acids decrease inflammation by diminishing the production of prostaglandins, hormone-like substances associated with inflammation in the body. Omega 3 EPA is the most powerful natural anti inflammatory and unlike pharmaceutical anti inflammatory products there are no health risks or side effects when taking them .

Improves Body Composition
Athletes often focus on body composition, or fat to muscle ratio, in order to stay in top physical shape and maximize training and performance. In a study published in the October 2010 issue of the “Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition,” Eric Noreen and colleagues found that participants taking fish oil for six weeks improved their body composition by increasing lean muscle mass and decreasing fat mass. Omega 3 specifically EPA offers better oxygen delivery during exercise and also is key in removing lactic acid from the body.

Omega 3 fish oil may help activate anti-diabetic genes

Tuesday, March 8th, 2011

Fish oils may help to activate anti-diabetic genes

Polyunsaturated fatty acid fish oils may activate genes that regulate fat cell differentiation and glucose homeostasis, according to new research on mice.

The new study published in Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry suggests supplementation with omega3 fish oil activates the transcription factor PPARγ, increasing regulation of adipocytes and helps to maintain glucose homeostasis.

“We demonstrated that adipogenic genes and glucose metabolism genes were elevated in PPARγ transgenic mice when fed fish oil. This transgenic mouse model provided direct evidence to demonstrate omega 3 , especially EPA  regulate glucose homeostasis through interaction with PPARγ,” wrote the researchers, led by Dr Yu-Hsiang Yu from the National Taiwan University

Vital roles

Peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) is considered an important transcription factor in regulating fat cell (adipocyte) differentiation, and is also known to play a vital role in maintaining glucose homeostasis. The transcription factor is a target for many anti-diabetic drugs as activation promotes glucose dispersal.

Activation of PPARγ occurs through the binding of specific ligand molecules; however, polyunsaturated fatty acids such as arachidonic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are also known to have a high binding affinity for PPARγ.

Previous studies suggest that polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and their metabolites are able to regulate PPARγ activity, demonstrating that DHA treatment increases PPARγ-responsive gene expression in a cell model.

However, most research demonstrating PPARγ activity uses in vitro cell models and there is currently no direct evidence available to demonstrate that polyunsaturated fatty acids are able to activate PPARγ in vivo.

The authors said the current experiment was designed to determine the potential for PUFA, particularly EPA and DHA, to activate the function of PPARγ in vivo.

Wild-type and transgenic mice – with over expressed PPARγ –were supplemented with either fish oil or PPARγ ligands (rosiglitazone) for four months to investigate whether fish oils have similar effects to true PPARγ ligands in vivo.


Dietary rosiglitazone fed mice had a significantly lower feed intake, but had no significant effect on body weight or fat pad weigh, whereas fish oil supplementation did not significantly decrease feed intake, but significantly decreased body and fat pad weight, found the researchers.

Dr. Yu and colleagues reported that adipogenic genes (LPL, FAT, SREBP-1c and FAS) were markedly up-regulated by rosiglitazone supplementation. Fish oil supplementation increased LPL and FAT, but not SREBP-1c or FAS; however, stained muscle sections indicated no lipid accumulation in skeletal muscle.

Researchers noted that transgenic mice fed a fish oil supplementation had increased expression of adipogenic and glucose uptake genes, leading to reduced plasma glucose concentration.

Natural regulator

The authors suggested that polyunsaturated fatty acids, particularly EPA and DHA, may serve as a natural regulator of glucose uptake in vivo, stating that such effects are mainly mediated through PPARγ activation.

“Our data demonstrated that the PPARγ-regulated glucose metabolism genes, GLUT-4 and ADN were dramatically increased in skeletal muscle of PPARγ transgenic mice when fed rosiglitazone or fish oil, suggesting activation … by either ligand,” concluded the authors.

Source: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry

“The function of porcine PPARγ and dietary fish oil effect on the expression of lipid and glucose metabolism related genes”

Omega 3 anti obesity effects and reduction in inflammation

Wednesday, February 23rd, 2011

Fat cells may play an important role in mediating the anti-obesity effects of omega-3 rich fish oils, according to a new review.

The review, published in The Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry, suggests that omega 3 fatty acids promote changes in fat tissue (adipose tissue) metabolism, which may bring about changes in cellular signaling and secretion, contributing to improvements in glucose and lipid metabolism.

“It has been well established that adipose tissue not only is an inert storage organ but also secretes many bioactive substances,” said the authors, led by Dr Michael Puglisi from Vanderbilt University, USA.

“Various reports indicate that improved adipose (AT) tissue storage and secretory functions and a reduction in AT-specific inflammation have a central role in mediating the beneficial effects of  omega3 fish oil  against the risk factors of  metabolic syndrome” added the reviewers.

The new review focused on the mechanistic details of the cellular signaling process that modulates AT storage, and the responses to omega-3 fatty acids that modulate a response to metabolic syndrome.

The authors said that obesity has led to “alarming increases in the incidence of many chronic diseases, including type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease.”

They added that because over nutrition leads to obesity, the manipulation of dietary nutrient content “is a logical means of alleviating this problem.”

Along with lowering of plasma triglycerides, omega-3 rich fish oils have been found to improve insulin sensitivity and reduce blood pressure, inflammation, thrombosis and arrhythmia – contributing to a role in lowering the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and diabetes.

The authors said that the liver mediated (hepatocentric) and blood lipid mediated (hypolipidemic) effects of fish oil have been extensively evaluated, “and undoubtedly play a major part in the reduction of risk for chronic disease.”But they noted that the potential adipose mediated (adipocentric) beneficial effects of fish oil have not been fully explored.

“Evidence points to the role of adipose tissue (AT) in fish oil-mediated improvements on features of metabolic syndrome, such as insulin resistance,” said Dr Puglisi and his colleagues.

Adipose tissue plays an important role in regulating lipid homeostasis by storing excess energy in the form of triglycerides.“Thus, the lipid storage function of AT is critical in buffering the daily influx of dietary fatty acids entering the circulation,” said the authors.
Adipose tissue secretes a variety of immune cell modulating molecules – known as adipokines. Fish oil has been associated “with remarkable changes in the plasma levels of two key adipokines, adiponectin and leptin,” they added.

Puglisi and co-workers explained that recent attention has been focused on the contribution of adiponectin in omega-3 mediated improvements in markers of metabolic syndromes. However, they added that emerging evidence has indicated a potential role of leptin in modulating metabolic syndrome from omega-3 intake.

“In addition to improving the storage and secretory functions of adipose tissue, fish oil, and the omega–3 fatty acids found in fish oil, have been shown to reduce inflammation in adipose tissue,” said the authors.
They explained that there is evidence to suggest such effects may be (at least in part) a result of modulation of signaling receptors such the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-gamma) or the inhibition of the Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)

Puglisi and his colleagues said there is “compelling evidence that fish oil mediates its beneficial effects on metabolic syndrome by improving adipose tissue storage and secretory functions and by reducing inflammation.”

Future studies are needed “to understand the mechanisms, in particular the role of PPAR-gamma, in modulating leptin signaling upon fish oil feeding,” said the authors.
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