Posts Tagged ‘epa’

High Concentration Omega3 EPA improves vascular function

Saturday, November 16th, 2013

Highly Purified EPA Improves Vascular Function
Sasaki J, Miwa T, Odawara M. Administration of highly purified eicosapentaenoic acid to statin-treated diabetic patients further improves vascular function. Endocr J. 2012;59(4):297-304.
We prospectively examined the additional effects of highly purified eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) particularly on the vascular function of diabetic patients with hypercholesterolemia receiving statin therapy.

We enrolled 28 patients with type 2 diabetes complicated by dyslipidemia who had been treated with statins for at least one year. The patients were randomly assigned to 2 groups: administration of statin alone (group S: n = 13) and addition of EPA to the current statin therapy (group SE: n = 15). The highly purified EPA was administered at a dose of 1,800 mg/day for 6 months. To evaluate vascular function, the duration of reactive hyperemia (DRH), which is the time required for forearm blood flow to return to the basal level after inducing reactive hyperemia, was measured using strain gauge plethysmography.

There were no significant differences in the clinical background factors between the 2 groups. Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels significantly decreased after 6 months only in group SE. Compared with the baseline data, no significant change in DRH was observed after 6 months in group S.

By contrast, DRH was significantly prolonged after 6 months in group SE, indicating that the addition of highly purified EPA improved vascular function.

Our results showed that in patients with type 2 diabetes and receiving statin therapy whose LDL-C level was less than 100

High strength Omega3 appears to inhibit breast cancer cell growth

Wednesday, January 16th, 2013

Although evidence has shown the regulating effect of n-3 poly-unsaturated fatty acid (n-3 PUFA) marine sourced omega3 fish oil on cell signaling transduction, it remains unknown whether n-3 PUFA treatment modulates estrogen signaling.

The current study showed that docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22:6), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, C20:5) shifted the pro-survival and proliferative effect of estrogen to a pro-apoptotic effect in human breast cancer (BCa) MCF-7 and T47D cells. 17 β-estradiol (E2) enhanced the inhibitory effect of n-3 PUFAs on BCa cell growth. The IC50 of DHA or EPA in MCF-7 cells decreased when combined with E2 (10 nM) treatment (from 173 µM for DHA only to 113 µM for DHA+E2, and from 187 µm for EPA only to 130 µm for EPA+E2). E2 also augmented apoptosis in n-3 PUFA-treated BCa cells. In contrast, in cells treated with stearic acid (SA, C18:0) as well as cells not treated with fatty acid, E2 promoted breast cancer cell growth. Classical (nuclear) estrogen receptors may not be involved in the pro-apoptotic effects of E2 on the n-3 PUFA-treated BCa cells because ERα agonist failed to elicit, and ERα knockdown failed to block E2 pro-apoptotic effects. Subsequent studies reveal that G protein coupled estrogen receptor 1 (GPER1) may mediate the pro-apoptotic effect of estrogen. N-3 PUFA treatment initiated the pro-apoptotic signaling of estrogen by increasing GPER1-cAMP-PKA signaling response, and blunting EGFR, Erk 1/2, and AKT activity.

These findings may not only provide the evidence to link n-3 PUFAs omega 3 biologic effects and the pro-apoptotic signaling of estrogen in breast cancer cells, but also shed new insight into the potential application of n-3 PUFAs in Breast Cancer treatment.

Research shows effectiveness of a daily dose 2.5G omega3 re treatment of depression in elderly

Sunday, October 14th, 2012

Abstract Nutrition Journal 2012, 11:82 doi:10.1186/1475-2891-11-82
Background
Depression is one of the most frequently missed diagnoses in elderly people, with obvious
negative effects on quality of life. Various studies have shown that long chain omega-3
polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) may be useful in its management. Our objective was
to evaluate whether a supplement containing n-3 PUFA improves depressive symptoms in
depressed elderly patients, and whether the blood fatty acid pattern is correlated with these
changes.
Methods
The severity of depressive symptoms according to the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS),
blood fatty acid composition and erythrocyte phospholipids were analyzed in 46 depressed
females aged 66-95y, diagnosed with depression according to DSMIV, within the context of
a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. 22 depressed females were included in
the intervention group (2.5 g/day of n-3 PUFA for 8 weeks), and 24 in the placebo group. We
also measured immunological parameters (CD2, CD3, CD4, CD8, CD16, CD19 and
cytokines (IL-5, IL-15).
Results
The mean GDS score and AA/EPA ratio, in whole blood and RBC membrane phospholipids,
were significantly lower after 2 months supplementation with n-3 PUFA. A significant
correlation between the amelioration of GDS and the AA/EPA ratio with some
immunological parameters, such as CD2, CD19, CD4, CD16 and the ratio CD4/CD8, was
also found. Nevertheless, omega-3 supplementation did not significantly improve the studied
immunological functions.
Conclusions
n-3 PUFA supplementation ameliorates symptoms in elderly depression. The n-3 PUFA
status may be monitored by means of the determination of whole blood AA/EPA ratio.

Research has show than 2G of EPA is required to treat Anxiety

Wednesday, October 10th, 2012

To get the daily intake level of 2 grams of EPA per day that was used in successful trials of using omega-3 fatty acid EPA to reduce anxiety, then this would translate into consuming 14 pounds of cod per day or if you were using salmon which has higher levels of fatty acids salmon then you would require 2 pounds per day to get 2 grams of EPA.
Buydens-Branchey L, Branchey M, and Hibbeln JR. “Associations between increases in plasma n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids following supplementation and decreases in anger and anxiety in substance abusers.” Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 32:568-575 (2008)

Omega 3 Essential Fatty key to Fuel Partitioning in the body . Research shows increase in muscle performance related to intake of omega3 essential fatty acids

Monday, February 6th, 2012

Omega 3 Essential Fatty key to Fuel Partitioning in the body . Research shows increase in muscle performance related to intake of omega3 essential fatty acids
• Decreasing Inflammation
• Increasing lean Muscle Growth
• Speeding Recovery time and better oxygen delivery during exercise
• Supporting Health Joints and Connective Tissue
• Aiding in Nerve Impulse Transmission
• Enhancing Cardiovascular Health
• Improves focus / concentration
• Prevents lactic acid build up

Omega 3 Essential Fatty Acids from Fish oil specifically EPA exert significant control over key metabolic genes in our cells. Particularly those involved in fat storage, fat burning and glycogen synthesis. Glycogen is stored carbohydrate energy. Fats high in Omega-3 play an essential role in maintenance of energy balance and glucose metabolism.

Scientists and Researchers have documented a phenomenon known as ‘fuel partitioning’, whereby dietary Omega3 essential fatty acids specifically EPA were able to direct glucose (from digested carbohydrates) towards glycogen storage while at the same time directing other fatty acids in the body away from triglyceride synthesis (ie fat storage) and towards fatty acid oxidation In addition, these studies suggested that omega-3 fatty acids have the unique ability to enhance thermogenesis (the burning of excess fat to produce heat), thereby reducing the efficiency of body fat deposition. What this means is that this fuel partitioning phenomenon appears to conserve carbohydrate while simultaneously shedding fat .

Research scientists studied the effects of omega-3 fat supplementation on swimming performance in rats . By comparison with a control group of unsupplemented rats, there was a 300% rise in the ‘swimming muscle’ levels of FABP, a protein that binds fatty acids and transports them to the mitochondria for oxidation, but no increase in muscle triglycerides. In a study on rat muscle fibers, high omega-3 produced 16-21% more muscle tension and up to 32% greater endurance during high frequency stimulation. Moreover, when these rats resumed their standard diets for a period of six weeks, their muscle function returned to the level of un-supplemented rats.

Obviously you have to take high concentration omega3, EPA in particular is key to the above processes. Many of you will have seen supplements on sale advertising 1000mg Omega3 with terms such as highest concentrations – do not be fooled by this – these formulations are usually at most 30% concentrates and very often lower – it basically means you are taking 70% filler oil . As well as that multiple low concentration products do not equate to 1 highly concentrated capsule of Take Omega3 – Research has shown that multiple capsules of low concentrate products do not benefit or act in the same way as one highly concentrated product of 85% or above. Take Omega3 is the highest concentration product available and each capsule has 750mg EPA and 50mg DHA we dont use filler oils . The human diet has too much of the pro inflammatory omega 6 in their diet so why take more via a supplement.

Researchers find skin treated with eicosapentaenoic acid had 79% fewer collagen destroying proteins.

Wednesday, December 14th, 2011

Various health and skincare news sites have been reporting that skin treated with eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) has 79% fewer collagen destroying proteins – so by increasing levels of EPA you can protect the collagen depletion and help slow down wrinkles as well as maintain the skins natural elasticity.

The best source of Eicosapentaenoic Acid is TakeOmega3 which is just under 90% EPA or eicosapentaenoic acid. This news followa up on earlier research re a study conducted by Kim et al (2006) discovered that EPA not only prevents UV induced skin ageing but that EPA also rejuvenates the skin. They discovered that EPA administration to sun exposed skin caused an increase in the expression of extra-cellular matrix proteins, such as pro-collagen, tropoelastin, and fibrillin-1 by increasing transforming growth factor-b (TGF-b). An increase in such proteins rebuilds the skin and improves its appearance.

Omega-3 fatty acids have been shown to reduce levels of F2-isoprostanes, a marker of systemic oxidative stress, as well as increasing levels of the antioxidant enzymes catalase and superoxide dismutase, thereby reducing oxidative stress.omega-3 fatty acids may protect against cellular aging as they protect telomere shortening. Telomere’s are believed to be the markers for biological aging .The aging and lifespan of normal, healthy cells are linked to the so-called telomerase shortening mechanism, which limits cells to a fixed number of divisions.
Omega 3 fatty acid EPA is the most potent natural anti inflammatory , it improves bllood circulation and increases oxygen delivery and works at a cellular level to ensure your skin is toned , radiant and firm.

One of the biggest causes of aging is stress , EPA is key to relieving stress and low mood if you feel better mentally then you look better physically.

It is also a powerful fat burner and increases lean muscle .Omega 3 slows aging at a cellular level

Omega 3 EPA the key omega3 to tackle obesity and type 2 diabetes

Saturday, October 8th, 2011

A major risk factor for cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes
and other pro inflammatory life-threatening conditions is the current obesity epidemic which is endemic in developed nations such as United States , United Kingdom , UAE where it’s fueled in large part by excessive consumption of a fat-rich “Western style diet.” The main issue is the increase consumption of saturated fats which are pro inflammatory ie animal fats , sunflower oil , corn oil etc Animal-derived saturated fats like lard and butter are strongly linked to adverse health effects, but unsaturated and polyunsaturated fats from plants and cold-water fish like salmon and mackerel are not. In fact, eating oily fish which is rich in omega3 especially EPA produces beneficial health effects and can reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease and diabetes
For biomedical investigators, the enduring question has been why saturated and unsaturated fatty acids produce such diametrically opposed health effects. Now, in a paper published in the Sept. 30 issue of the journal Cell, researchers at the University of California San Diego School of Medicine and colleagues offer an explanation, and a framework that could lead to dietary supplements designed to treat obesity at the molecular level.

“These findings not only explain the long-standing enigma regarding the differential health effects of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids,” said senior author Michael Karin, PhD, Distinguished Professor of Pharmacology in UC San Diego’s Laboratory of Gene Regulation and Signal Transduction, “they also provide improved tools and a mechanistic framework for the potential development of dietary supplements to treat obesity, estimated to be worth billions of dollars per year.”

Senior author Karin, first author Ryan G. Holzer, PhD, formerly a graduate student in Karin’s lab and now at the Mayo Clinic, and colleagues began with the observation that saturated fatty acids, such as palmitic acid, are potent activators of Jun kinases (JNK), key regulatory molecules implicated in the development of type 2 diabetes, insulin resistance, obesity and atherosclerosis. However, unsaturated fatty acids such as palmitoleic acid (POA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) not only do not activate JNK, but actually block JNK activation by palmitic acid.

Palmitic acid and POA differ in molecular structure by the presence of a single unsaturated bond (the absence of two hydrogen atoms) in POA. Cellular membrane fluidity is decreased upon incorporation of saturated fatty acids, which possess rigid hydrocarbon tails, but increased by the incorporation of unsaturated fatty acids with “bent” hydrocarbon tails.

Postulating that the membrane is the only cellular structure that can discriminate between all of these fatty acids, the scientists searched for membrane-associated protein kinases that could account for the differential effects on JNK activity. They ultimately identified c-Src, a membrane-associated tyrosine kinase, as the molecule responsible for activation of JNK by palmitic acid and other saturated fatty acids. They also discovered that saturated fatty acids “push” c-Src into membrane sub-domains of reduced fluidity and increased rigidity, where it accumulates in an activated form that eventually leads to JNK activation.

By contrast, POA and EPA prevent these changes in the membrane distribution of c-Src and — by blocking c-Src aggregation — they inhibit its activation by saturated fatty acids.

Most of the research was conducted using cultured cells (fibroblasts) treated with individual or combined fatty acids, but the scientists also fed mice a high-fat diet (in which 60 percent of the calories were fat-derived) and reported similar c-Src accumulation within membrane subdomains of increased rigidity and JNK activation.

Currently, polyunsaturated fatty acids, such as EPA and structurally-related omega-3 fatty acids are used in the treatment of hyperlipidemia (high blood cholesterol levels) and may be effective in the treatment or prevention of type 2 diabetes. Karin said understanding how EPA works could lead to the identification of even more potent EPA-like molecules.

Funding for this research came from the National Institutes of Health, the Superfund Basic Research Program and the American Diabetes Association.

Co-authors of the paper are Eek-Joong Park, Ning Li, Helen Tran, Monica Chen and Crystal Choi, Laboratory of Gene Regulation and Signal Transduction, Department of Pharmacology, UC San Diego; and Giovanni Solinas, Laboratory of Metabolic Stress Biology, Department of Medicine, Physiology, University of Fribourg, Switzerlan

Studies suggest that a diet rich in omega-3 essential fatty acids may have beneficial anti-inflammatory effects for chronic conditions such as cystic fibrosis.

Saturday, September 10th, 2011

Nutrition & Dietetics, Sydney Children’s Hospital, High Street, Randwick, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia, 2031.

Studies suggest that a diet rich in omega-3 essential fatty acids may have beneficial anti-inflammatory effects for chronic conditions such as cystic fibrosis. Omega 3  active ingredient EPA is the most powerful natural anti inflammatory , as Cystic fibrosis is a pro inflammatory condition it is believed the active ingredient EPA in omega 3 can have beneficial effects . In  studies the omega3 used has been high in DHA , there has yet to be s study conducted which uses high concentration EPA , EPA also allows better oxygen delivery . The study detailed below has NOT  used a high concentration EPA formulation , and the results show clear potential . If a high EPA formulation were to be used it is assumed that we may observe  clear benefits for those suffering from cystic fibrosis.

To determine whether there is evidence that omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation reduces morbidity and mortality and to identify any adverse events associated with supplementation.

SEARCH STRATEGY:

We searched the Cochrane Cystic Fibrosis and Genetic Disorders Group’s Trials Register comprising references identified from comprehensive electronic database searches and handsearches of relevant journals and abstract books of conference proceedings. Authors and persons interested in the subject of the review were contacted.Date of last search: 10 March 2011.

SELECTION CRITERIA:

Randomised controlled trials in people with cystic fibrosis comparing omega-3 fatty acid supplements with placebo.

DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS:

Two authors independently selected studies for inclusion, extracted data and assessed the risk of bias of the studies.

MAIN RESULTS:

The searches identified 13 studies; four studies with 91 participants were included. Two studies compared omega-3 fatty acids to olive oil for six weeks. One study compared a liquid dietary supplement containing omega-3 fatty acids to one without for six months. One study compared omega-3 fatty acids and omega-6 fatty acids to a control (capsules with customised fatty acid blends) for three months. Only one short-term study (19 participants) comparing omega-3 to placebo reported a significant improvement in lung function and Shwachman score and a reduction in sputum volume in the omega-3 group. Another study (43 participants) demonstrated a significant increase in serum phospholipid essential fatty acid content and a significant drop in the n-6/n-3 fatty acid ratio following omega-3 fatty acid supplementation compared to control. The longer-term study (17 participants) demonstrated a significant increase in essential fatty acid content in neutrophil membranes and a significant decrease in the leukotriene B4 to leukotriene B5 ratio in participants taking omega-3 supplements compared to placebo.

AUTHORS’ CONCLUSIONS:

This review found that regular omega-3 supplements may provide some benefits for people with cystic fibrosis with relatively few adverse effects, although evidence is insufficient to draw firm conclusions or recommend routine use of these supplements in people with cystic fibrosis. This review has highlighted the lack of data for many outcomes meaningful to people with or making treatment decisions about cystic fibrosis. A large, long-term, multicentre, randomised controlled study is needed to determine any significant therapeutic effect and to assess the influence of disease severity, dosage and duration of treatment. Future researchers should note the need for additional pancreatic enzymes.

Omega 3 Fish Oil EPA and DHA on Metabolic Rate, Body Composition and Coritsol natural sports nutrition

Friday, July 29th, 2011

Effects of supplemental omega 3 fish oil on resting metabolic rate, body composition, and salivary cortisol in healthy adults. Journal International Soc Sports Nutrition . Oct 8;7:31.
BACKGROUND: To determine the effects of supplemental Omega 3 fish oil (FO) on resting metabolic rate (RMR), body composition, and cortisol production in healthy adults.

METHODS: A total of 44 men and women (34 ± 13y, mean+SD) participated in the study. All testing was performed first thing in the morning following an overnight fast. Baseline measurements of RMR were measured using indirect calorimetry using a facemask, and body composition was measured using air displacement plethysmography. Saliva was collected via passive drool and analyzed for cortisol concentration using ELISA. Following baseline testing, subjects were randomly assigned in a double blind manner to one of two groups: 4 g/d of Safflower Oil (SO); or 4 g/d of FO supplying 1,600 mg/d eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and 800 mg/d docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). All tests were repeated following 6 wk of treatment. Pre to post differences were analyzed using a treatment X time repeated measures ANOVA, and correlations were analyzed using Pearson’s r.

RESULTS: Compared to the SO group, there was a significant increase in fat free mass following treatment with FO (FO = +0.5 ± 0.5 kg, SO = -0.1 ± 1.2 kg, p = 0.03), a significant reduction in fat mass (FO = -0.5 ± 1.3 kg, SO = +0.2 ± 1.2 kg, p = 0.04), and a tendency for a decrease in body fat percentage (FO = -0.4 ± 1.3% body fat, SO = +0. 3 ± 1.5% body fat, p = 0.08). No significant differences were observed for body mass (FO = 0.0 ± 0.9 kg, SO = +0.2 ± 0.8 kg), RMR (FO = +17 ± 260 kcal, SO = -62 ± 184 kcal) or respiratory exchange ratio (FO = -0.02 ± 0.09, SO = +0.02 ± 0.05). There was a tendency for salivary cortisol to decrease in the FO group (FO = -0.064 ± 0.142 μg/dL, SO = +0.016 ± 0.272 μg/dL, p = 0.11). There was a significant correlation in the FO group between change in cortisol and change in fat free mass (r = -0.504, p = 0.02) and fat mass (r = 0.661, p = 0.001).

CONCLUSION: 6 wk of supplementation with omega 3 fish oil significantly increased lean mass and decreased fat mass. These changes were significantly correlated with a reduction in salivary cortisol following Omega 3 fish oil treatment.

Consumption Of Omega-3 essential Fatty acid fish oils Decrease Homocysteine Levels In Diabetic Patients

Friday, July 29th, 2011

Consumption Of Omega-3 FAs Decrease Homocysteine Levels In Diabetic Patients
Pooya S, Jalali MD, Jazayery AD, et al. The efficacy of omega-3 fatty acid supplementation on plasma homocysteine and malondialdehyde levels of type 2 diabetic patients. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2009;18.
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Cardiovascular diseases are the major cause of mortality among diabetic patients. The concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA) and homocysteine is believed to play a role in cardiovascular diseases. Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation could be effective in some diabetes complications and in the control of the glycemic index. However, it may increase lipid peroxidation. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of omega-3 fatty acids on the concentration of homocysteine and MDA in diabetic patients.

METHODS AND RESULTS: A randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial was conducted on 81 patients with type 2 diabetes. The patients were randomly assigned to either the treatment or control groups. Each subject received three capsules of omega-3 fatty acids or a placebo every day for a period of 2months. The two groups were similar in terms of body mass index and food intake. At the beginning of the study and after 2months of supplementation their levels of HbA(1)c, homocysteine, MDA, C-reactive protein (CRP), total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and fasting blood sugar (FBS) were determined. Due to omega-3 fatty acid supplementation, homocysteine was changed significantly in both treatment and control groups up to -3.10mumol/L and 0.10mumol/L respectively, and HbA(1)c decreased by 0.75% in the treatment group and increased by 0.26% in the control group. However, the changes in fasting blood sugar (FBS), malondialdehyde (MDA), C-reactive protein (CRP), total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol levels were not significant.

CONCLUSION: The consumption of omega-3 fatty acid supplements (3g/day) for 2months decreases the levels of homocysteine in diabetic patients with no change in FBS, MDA and CRP levels.

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