Posts Tagged ‘diet for type 2 diabetes’

UK experts are predicting a steep rise in the rate of an eye condition that is already a leading cause of blindness globally . Omega 3 EPA and DHA an reduce risk

Wednesday, July 13th, 2011

UK experts are predicting a steep rise in the rate of an eye condition that is already a leading cause of blindness globally . Omega 3 EPA and DHA an reduce risk

Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) affects more than 600,000 Britons.But an ageing population means this figure could rise by a quarter to nearly 756,000 by 2020, according to recent research in the British Journal of Ophthalmology.Yet half of UK adults have never heard of AMD, a poll by the College of Optometrists suggests.The survey of over 4,000 also found many people were unaware that a poor diet and smoking increases the risk of AMD.AMD affects a tiny part of the retina at the back of the eye that controls central vision.

people in UK and globally need to be more aware of AMD and the impact that it can have This makes it difficult for the individual to see fine detail, such as recognising people’s faces, reading or watching television.There are two forms of AMD, wet and dry.There is currently no cure for either forms but early diagnosis and treatment of wet AMD – which develops rapidly – is crucial in order to prevent vision loss.Dry AMD, which is more common, develops gradually and is not treatable but there are services available to support people with this condition.Dr Susan Blakeney, optometric adviser to the College of Optometrists said: “Age-related macular degeneration is the biggest single cause of sight loss in the UK so it is concerning that so few people are aware of it and its symptoms.”By making people more aware of AMD and the impact that it can have, we hope to increase detection and people seeking access to support services.”While AMD is a condition associated with older age, there are steps you can take earlier in life to minimise your risk.Research suggests that a diet rich in leafy green vegetables, brightly coloured fruits and vegetables and oily fish may help prevent AMD.Smoking also doubles your chances of developing the condition so quitting can also reduce your risk.Dr Blakeney said: “I also recommend to patients that they regularly check the vision in each eye separately so that they can spot early changes.”It is easy to do and only takes a couple of seconds, yet it could save your sight. You can do it by looking at a bit of graph paper and checking if you see any distortion or blank spots.”

Omega 3 fish oil EPA Slows Progress of Atherosclerosis in Diabetic Patients

Tuesday, July 12th, 2011

EPA Slows Progress of Atherosclerosis in Diabetic Patients

People with type 2 diabetes are more likely to develop heart disease, circulatory problems and damaged organs than people without the condition. Impaired blood circulation, particularly in the small blood vessels, contributes to damaged eyes, kidneys and feet. Thus, in caring for diabetic patients, doctors pay close attention to blood circulation. To date, there are not many ways of improving the damaged blood vessels that develop in atherosclerosis and type 2 diabetes.

The fatty acids in fish oils, known as long-chain omega-3s, are known to improve blood vessel function in patients with heart disease. They relax the muscles in the blood vessel walls, reduce inflammation and lower blood clotting. These properties make them good candidates for improving blood vessel function in type 2 diabetics. Accordingly, a team of Japanese investigators examined the effect of consuming nearly 2 g/day of EPA, on the thickness of the carotid artery wall in diabetic patients. EPA is one of the major long-chain omega-3 fatty acids in fish oil. This dose is about the equivalent of 2 servings of salmon/day. Study participants consumed the omega-3 supplements for 2 years. Patients who were given standard medical treatment, but no supplements, were used for comparison.

At the end of the study, patients consuming EPA had a significant decrease of 4.7% in the thickness of their carotid wall compared with an increase of 2.4% in patients receiving standard care. Measurements of blood flow also improved in the EPA patients. There was a small increase in glycosylated hemoglobin, a sensitive measure of elevated blood glucose, in the EPA group and a decrease in the control patients. While this outcome was undesirable, such values in individual patients would call for aggressive patient management. This finding indicates that diabetic patients who consume large amounts of fish oil should be regularly monitored by their doctors for blood glucose control. With regular check-ups, diabetic patients can obtain the heart and circulatory system benefits of fish oil without compromising their diabetes status. Overall, this study adds to the growing evidence that long-chain omega-3 fatty acids may slow the progression of atherosclerosis in patients with type 2 diabetes or coronary artery disease.

Omega 3 fish oil may help prevent type 2 diabetes

Thursday, June 30th, 2011

Omega-3 boosts insulin resistance markers, suggests study

ncreased consumption of omega-3 fatty acids may help to improve important markers insulin resistance, which may lead to diabetes, says new research

The study, published in the European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology, evaluated the effects of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) on lipid profile and insulin resistance biomarkers. The researchers found that dietary intake of concentrated omega-3 capsules with meals resulted in improved lipid profiles and adiponectin levels, compared to placebo in a baseline condition, and an improvement of all insulin resistance parameters after an oral fat load.

“Omega-3 PUFA not only improved lipid profile in a baseline situation, but it also improved all insulin resistance parameters in a post-prandial situation simulated with an oral fat load. This is another important action,” said the researchers, led by Giuseppe Derosa from the University of Pavia, Italy.

Omega-3

The beneficial effects of dietary intake of omega-3 PUFA and cardiovascular disease first established following the observation that the Greenland Inuits had low mortality from coronary heart disease despite a fat-rich diet.

Since then, research haI.s demonstrated omega-3 fatty acids can improve the plasma lipid profiles, boost inflammatory responses, and reduce blood pressure, pulse pressure, and basal heart rate.

For the study, 167 patients (82 males and 85 females) were assigned to receive one gram of either placebo (a capsule containing sucrose, mannitol, and mineral salts) or omega-3 PUFA (concentrated EPA and DHA) three times a day, during meals, for six months.

Omega-3 PUFAs were reported to improve HDL-cholesterol and plasma triglyceride markers compared to placebo, while they had a neutral effect on total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol.

After an oral fat load, the researchers found that the group taking omega-3 capsules showed an improvement of all parameters, include insulin resistance biomarkers, while there was a neutral effect with placebo.

Derosa and his colleagues concluded that omega-3 intake “resulted in a greater improvement of lipid profile and ADN compared to placebo in a baseline condition, and an improvement of all insulin resistance parameters after an oral fat load.”

Source: European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology
Published online ahead of print, doi: 10.1002/ejlt.201000504
“Effects of n-3 PUFA on insulin resistance after an oral fat load”
Authors: G. Derosa, A.F.G. Cicero, E. Fogari, A. D’Angelo, A. Bonaventura, P.

Omega 3 fish oil may help activate anti-diabetic genes

Tuesday, March 8th, 2011

Fish oils may help to activate anti-diabetic genes

Polyunsaturated fatty acid fish oils may activate genes that regulate fat cell differentiation and glucose homeostasis, according to new research on mice.

The new study published in Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry suggests supplementation with omega3 fish oil activates the transcription factor PPARγ, increasing regulation of adipocytes and helps to maintain glucose homeostasis.

“We demonstrated that adipogenic genes and glucose metabolism genes were elevated in PPARγ transgenic mice when fed fish oil. This transgenic mouse model provided direct evidence to demonstrate omega 3 , especially EPA  regulate glucose homeostasis through interaction with PPARγ,” wrote the researchers, led by Dr Yu-Hsiang Yu from the National Taiwan University

Vital roles

Peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) is considered an important transcription factor in regulating fat cell (adipocyte) differentiation, and is also known to play a vital role in maintaining glucose homeostasis. The transcription factor is a target for many anti-diabetic drugs as activation promotes glucose dispersal.

Activation of PPARγ occurs through the binding of specific ligand molecules; however, polyunsaturated fatty acids such as arachidonic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are also known to have a high binding affinity for PPARγ.

Previous studies suggest that polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and their metabolites are able to regulate PPARγ activity, demonstrating that DHA treatment increases PPARγ-responsive gene expression in a cell model.

However, most research demonstrating PPARγ activity uses in vitro cell models and there is currently no direct evidence available to demonstrate that polyunsaturated fatty acids are able to activate PPARγ in vivo.

The authors said the current experiment was designed to determine the potential for PUFA, particularly EPA and DHA, to activate the function of PPARγ in vivo.

Wild-type and transgenic mice – with over expressed PPARγ –were supplemented with either fish oil or PPARγ ligands (rosiglitazone) for four months to investigate whether fish oils have similar effects to true PPARγ ligands in vivo.

Results

Dietary rosiglitazone fed mice had a significantly lower feed intake, but had no significant effect on body weight or fat pad weigh, whereas fish oil supplementation did not significantly decrease feed intake, but significantly decreased body and fat pad weight, found the researchers.

Dr. Yu and colleagues reported that adipogenic genes (LPL, FAT, SREBP-1c and FAS) were markedly up-regulated by rosiglitazone supplementation. Fish oil supplementation increased LPL and FAT, but not SREBP-1c or FAS; however, stained muscle sections indicated no lipid accumulation in skeletal muscle.

Researchers noted that transgenic mice fed a fish oil supplementation had increased expression of adipogenic and glucose uptake genes, leading to reduced plasma glucose concentration.

Natural regulator

The authors suggested that polyunsaturated fatty acids, particularly EPA and DHA, may serve as a natural regulator of glucose uptake in vivo, stating that such effects are mainly mediated through PPARγ activation.

“Our data demonstrated that the PPARγ-regulated glucose metabolism genes, GLUT-4 and ADN were dramatically increased in skeletal muscle of PPARγ transgenic mice when fed rosiglitazone or fish oil, suggesting activation … by either ligand,” concluded the authors.

Source: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry

“The function of porcine PPARγ and dietary fish oil effect on the expression of lipid and glucose metabolism related genes”

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