Posts Tagged ‘diabetes’

Initiating therapy with second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs) in children and adolescents has been linked to an increased risk of developing diabetes within 1 year

Thursday, November 24th, 2011

Initiating therapy with second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs) in children and adolescents has been linked to an increased risk of developing diabetes within 1 year, new research suggests.

A large retrospective study shows previously SGA-naive children and youth may have up to a 4-fold increased rate of incident diabetes mellitus (DM) compared with children not using any psychotropic medications.

“We found an increased incidence of diabetes among children within the first year after initiation of SGA therapy, compared with children who were not using any psychotropic medications. This finding persisted when the incidences of both diabetes and abnormal glucose laboratory values were evaluated,” the researchers write.

However, the study showed no difference in DM rates in children and adolescents taking SGAs and their counterparts initiating therapy with antidepressant medications.

With lead author Susan E. Andrade, ScD, the study was published online November 21 in Pediatrics.


The side effects of the new second-generation antipsychotic medicines vary these medicines are prescribed for conditions such as schizophrenia

Side effects that all these medicines may have include:

  • Feeling sleepy or tired.
  • Gaining weight.
  • Developing high cholesterol
  • Developing high blood sugar

The makers of Risperdal, seroqual , and zyprexa have warned that high blood sugar or type 2 diabetes may be more likely in people who are taking these medicines.

Omega 3 EPA the key omega3 to tackle obesity and type 2 diabetes

Saturday, October 8th, 2011

A major risk factor for cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes
and other pro inflammatory life-threatening conditions is the current obesity epidemic which is endemic in developed nations such as United States , United Kingdom , UAE where it’s fueled in large part by excessive consumption of a fat-rich “Western style diet.” The main issue is the increase consumption of saturated fats which are pro inflammatory ie animal fats , sunflower oil , corn oil etc Animal-derived saturated fats like lard and butter are strongly linked to adverse health effects, but unsaturated and polyunsaturated fats from plants and cold-water fish like salmon and mackerel are not. In fact, eating oily fish which is rich in omega3 especially EPA produces beneficial health effects and can reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease and diabetes
For biomedical investigators, the enduring question has been why saturated and unsaturated fatty acids produce such diametrically opposed health effects. Now, in a paper published in the Sept. 30 issue of the journal Cell, researchers at the University of California San Diego School of Medicine and colleagues offer an explanation, and a framework that could lead to dietary supplements designed to treat obesity at the molecular level.

“These findings not only explain the long-standing enigma regarding the differential health effects of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids,” said senior author Michael Karin, PhD, Distinguished Professor of Pharmacology in UC San Diego’s Laboratory of Gene Regulation and Signal Transduction, “they also provide improved tools and a mechanistic framework for the potential development of dietary supplements to treat obesity, estimated to be worth billions of dollars per year.”

Senior author Karin, first author Ryan G. Holzer, PhD, formerly a graduate student in Karin’s lab and now at the Mayo Clinic, and colleagues began with the observation that saturated fatty acids, such as palmitic acid, are potent activators of Jun kinases (JNK), key regulatory molecules implicated in the development of type 2 diabetes, insulin resistance, obesity and atherosclerosis. However, unsaturated fatty acids such as palmitoleic acid (POA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) not only do not activate JNK, but actually block JNK activation by palmitic acid.

Palmitic acid and POA differ in molecular structure by the presence of a single unsaturated bond (the absence of two hydrogen atoms) in POA. Cellular membrane fluidity is decreased upon incorporation of saturated fatty acids, which possess rigid hydrocarbon tails, but increased by the incorporation of unsaturated fatty acids with “bent” hydrocarbon tails.

Postulating that the membrane is the only cellular structure that can discriminate between all of these fatty acids, the scientists searched for membrane-associated protein kinases that could account for the differential effects on JNK activity. They ultimately identified c-Src, a membrane-associated tyrosine kinase, as the molecule responsible for activation of JNK by palmitic acid and other saturated fatty acids. They also discovered that saturated fatty acids “push” c-Src into membrane sub-domains of reduced fluidity and increased rigidity, where it accumulates in an activated form that eventually leads to JNK activation.

By contrast, POA and EPA prevent these changes in the membrane distribution of c-Src and — by blocking c-Src aggregation — they inhibit its activation by saturated fatty acids.

Most of the research was conducted using cultured cells (fibroblasts) treated with individual or combined fatty acids, but the scientists also fed mice a high-fat diet (in which 60 percent of the calories were fat-derived) and reported similar c-Src accumulation within membrane subdomains of increased rigidity and JNK activation.

Currently, polyunsaturated fatty acids, such as EPA and structurally-related omega-3 fatty acids are used in the treatment of hyperlipidemia (high blood cholesterol levels) and may be effective in the treatment or prevention of type 2 diabetes. Karin said understanding how EPA works could lead to the identification of even more potent EPA-like molecules.

Funding for this research came from the National Institutes of Health, the Superfund Basic Research Program and the American Diabetes Association.

Co-authors of the paper are Eek-Joong Park, Ning Li, Helen Tran, Monica Chen and Crystal Choi, Laboratory of Gene Regulation and Signal Transduction, Department of Pharmacology, UC San Diego; and Giovanni Solinas, Laboratory of Metabolic Stress Biology, Department of Medicine, Physiology, University of Fribourg, Switzerlan

Omega-3 fatty acids attenuate constitutive and insulin-induced CD36 expression through a suppression of PPAR α/γ activity in microvascular endothelial cells.

Saturday, September 10th, 2011

Raffaele De Caterina, MD, PhD, Institute of Cardiology, “G. d’Annunzio” University – Chieti, C/o Ospedale SS. Annunziata, Via dei Vestini, 66013 Chieti, Italy, Tel: +39 0871 41512, Fax: +39 0871 553 461, E-mail: rdecater@unich.it.

Abstract

Microvascular dysfunction occurs in insulin resistance and/or hyperinsulinaemia. Enhanced uptake of free fatty acids (FFA) and oxidised low-density lipoproteins (oxLDL) may lead to oxidative stress and microvascular dysfunction interacting with CD36, a PPARα/γ-regulated scavenger receptor and long-chain FFA transporter. We investigated CD36 expression and CD36-mediated oxLDL uptake before and after insulin treatment in human dermal microvascular endothelial cells (HMVECs), ± different types of fatty acids (FA), including palmitic, oleic, linoleic, arachidonic, eicosapentaenoic (EPA), and docosahexaenoic (DHA) acids. Insulin (10⁻⁸ and 10⁻⁷ M) time-dependently increased DiI-oxLDL uptake and CD36 surface expression (by 30 ± 13%, p<0.05 vs. untreated control after 24 hours incubation), as assessed by ELISA and flow cytometry, an effect that was potentiated by the PI3-kinase inhibitor wortmannin and reverted by the ERK1/2 inhibitor PD98059 and the PPARα/γ antagonist GW9662. A ≥24 hour exposure to 50 μM DHA or EPA, but not other FA, blunted both the constitutive (by 23 ℜ∓ 3% and 29 ± 2%, respectively, p<0.05 for both) and insulin-induced CD36 expressions (by 45 ± 27 % and 12 ± 3 %, respectively, p<0.05 for both), along with insulin-induced uptake of DiI-oxLDL and the downregulation of phosphorylated endothelial nitric oxide synthase (P-eNOS). At gel shift assays, DHA reverted insulin-induced basal and oxLDL-stimulated transactivation of PPRE and DNA binding of PPARα/γ and NF-κB. In conclusion, omega-3 fatty acids blunt the increased CD36 expression and activity promoted by high concentrations of insulin. Such mechanisms may be the basis for the use of omega-3 fatty acids in diabetic microvasculopathy.

What is Diabetes

Monday, August 29th, 2011

Diabetes is a chronic disease that occurs either when the pancreas does not produce enough insulin or when the body cannot effectively use the insulin it produces. Insulin is a hormone that regulates blood sugar. Hyperglycaemia, or raised blood sugar, is a common effect of uncontrolled diabetes and over time leads to serious damage to many of the body’s systems, especially the nerves and blood vessels.
Type 1 diabetes (previously known as insulin-dependent, juvenile or childhood-onset) is characterized by deficient insulin production and requires daily administration of insulin. The cause of type 1 diabetes is not known and it is not preventable with current knowledge.

Symptoms include excessive excretion of urine (polyuria), thirst (polydipsia), constant hunger, weight loss, vision changes and fatigue. These symptoms may occur suddenly.
Type 2 diabetes (formerly called non-insulin-dependent or adult-onset) results from the body’s ineffective use of insulin. Type 2 diabetes comprises 90% of people with diabetes around the world, and is largely the result of excess body weight and physical inactivity.

Symptoms may be similar to those of Type 1 diabetes, but are often less marked. As a result, the disease may be diagnosed several years after onset, once complications have already arisen.

Until recently, this type of diabetes was seen only in adults but it is now also occurring in children.
Gestational diabetes is hyperglycaemia with onset or first recognition during pregnancy.

Symptoms of gestational diabetes are similar to Type 2 diabetes. Gestational diabetes is most often diagnosed through prenatal screening, rather than reported symptoms.

Impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and impaired fasting glycaemia (IFG)
Impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and impaired fasting glycaemia (IFG) are intermediate conditions in the transition between normality and diabetes. People with IGT or IFG are at high risk of progressing to type 2 diabetes, although this is not inevitable.

What are common consequences of diabetes?
Over time, diabetes can damage the heart, blood vessels, eyes, kidneys, and nerves.

Diabetes increases the risk of heart disease and stroke. 50% of people with diabetes die of cardiovascular disease (primarily heart disease and stroke).
Combined with reduced blood flow, neuropathy in the feet increases the chance of foot ulcers and eventual limb amputation.
Diabetic retinopathy is an important cause of blindness, and occurs as a result of long-term accumulated damage to the small blood vessels in the retina. After 15 years of diabetes, approximately 2% of people become blind, and about 10% develop severe visual impairment.
Diabetes is among the leading causes of kidney failure. 10-20% of people with diabetes die of kidney failure.
Diabetic neuropathy is damage to the nerves as a result of diabetes, and affects up to 50% of people with diabetes. Although many different problems can occur as a result of diabetic neuropathy, common symptoms are tingling, pain, numbness, or weakness in the feet and hands.

Consumption Of Omega-3 essential Fatty acid fish oils Decrease Homocysteine Levels In Diabetic Patients

Friday, July 29th, 2011

Consumption Of Omega-3 FAs Decrease Homocysteine Levels In Diabetic Patients
Pooya S, Jalali MD, Jazayery AD, et al. The efficacy of omega-3 fatty acid supplementation on plasma homocysteine and malondialdehyde levels of type 2 diabetic patients. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2009;18.
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Cardiovascular diseases are the major cause of mortality among diabetic patients. The concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA) and homocysteine is believed to play a role in cardiovascular diseases. Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation could be effective in some diabetes complications and in the control of the glycemic index. However, it may increase lipid peroxidation. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of omega-3 fatty acids on the concentration of homocysteine and MDA in diabetic patients.

METHODS AND RESULTS: A randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial was conducted on 81 patients with type 2 diabetes. The patients were randomly assigned to either the treatment or control groups. Each subject received three capsules of omega-3 fatty acids or a placebo every day for a period of 2months. The two groups were similar in terms of body mass index and food intake. At the beginning of the study and after 2months of supplementation their levels of HbA(1)c, homocysteine, MDA, C-reactive protein (CRP), total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and fasting blood sugar (FBS) were determined. Due to omega-3 fatty acid supplementation, homocysteine was changed significantly in both treatment and control groups up to -3.10mumol/L and 0.10mumol/L respectively, and HbA(1)c decreased by 0.75% in the treatment group and increased by 0.26% in the control group. However, the changes in fasting blood sugar (FBS), malondialdehyde (MDA), C-reactive protein (CRP), total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol levels were not significant.

CONCLUSION: The consumption of omega-3 fatty acid supplements (3g/day) for 2months decreases the levels of homocysteine in diabetic patients with no change in FBS, MDA and CRP levels.

boosting omega-3 intake through diet or supplements might be a safer way to improve insulin sensitivity in patients with diabetes or pre-diabetes as well as helping to prevent retinopathy a major form of blindness

Wednesday, July 13th, 2011

Omega-3 fatty acids -fats commonly found in fish oil specifically EPA and DHA — were shown several years ago to prevent retinopathy, a major form of blindness, in a mouse model of the disease. A follow-up study, from the same research team at Children’s Hospital Boston, now reveals exactly how omega-3’s provide protection, and provides reassurance that widely used COX-inhibiting drugs like aspirin and NSAIDs don’t negate their benefit.
The findings, published in the February 9th issue of Science Translational Medicine, also suggest that omega-3’s may be beneficial in diabetes.
Retinopathy — an eye disease caused by the proliferation of tortuous, leaky blood vessels in the retina — is a leading cause of blindness, affecting 4.1 million Americans with diabetes (a number expected to double over the next 15 years) and many premature infants. Another 7 million-plus Americans have age-related macular degeneration (AMD); this too will increase as the population ages. The most common “wet” form of AMD is also caused by abnormal blood vessel growth.
The ability to prevent these “neovascular” eye diseases with omega-3 fatty acids could provide tremendous cost savings, says Children’s ophthalmologist Lois Smith, MD, PhD, senior investigator on the study. “The cost of omega-3 supplementation is about $10 a month, versus up to $4,000 a month for anti-VEGF therapy,” she says, referring to drugs such as Macugen and Lucentis used in AMD and diabetic retinopathy. “Our new findings give us new information on how omega-3s work that makes them an even more promising option.”
Omega-3 fatty acids, highly concentrated in the retina, are often lacking in Western diets, which tend to be higher in omega-6 fatty acids. In Smith’s previous study, mice fed diets rich in omega-3 fatty acids by Smith’s team had nearly 50 percent less pathologic vessel growth in the retina than mice fed omega-6-rich diets. Smith and colleagues further showed that the omega-3 diet decreased inflammatory messaging in the eye.
In the new study, they document another protective mechanism: a direct effect on blood vessel growth (angiogenesis) that selectively promotes the growth of healthy blood vessels and inhibits the growth of abnormal vessels.
In addition, Smith and colleagues isolated the specific compound from omega-3 fatty acids that has these beneficial effects in mice (a metabolite of the omega-3 fatty acid DHA, known as 4-HDHA), and the enzyme that produces it (5-lipoxygenase, or 5-LOX). They showed that COX enzymes are not involved in omega-3 breakdown, suggesting that aspirin and NSAIDs — taken by millions of Americans — will not interfere with omega-3 benefits.
“This is important for people with diabetes, who often take aspirin to prevent heart disease, and also for elderly people with AMD who have a propensity for heart disease,” says Smith. (One drug used for asthma, zileuton, does interfere with 5-LOX, however.)
Finally, the study demonstrated that 5-LOX acts by activating the PPAR-gamma receptor, the same receptor targeted by “glitazone” drugs such as Avandia, taken by patients with type 2 diabetes to increase their sensitivity to insulin. Since these drugs also increase the risk for heart disease, boosting omega-3 intake through diet or supplements might be a safer way to improve insulin sensitivity in patients with diabetes or pre-diabetes. “There needs to be a good clinical study in diabetes,” Smith says.
Smith works closely with principal investigators at the National Eye Institute who are conducting an ongoing multicenter trial of omega-3 supplements in patients with AMD, known as AREDS2. The trial will continue until 2013. An earlier retrospective study, AREDS1, found higher self-reported intake of fish to be associated with a lower likelihood of AMD.
In addition, Smith is collaborating with a group in Sweden that is conducting a clinical trial of omega-3 fatty acids in premature infants, who are often deficient in omega-3. That study will measure infants’ blood levels of omega-3 products and follow the infants to see if they develop retinopathy. If results are promising Smith will seek FDA approval to conduct a clinical trial in premature infants at Children’s.
Meanwhile, in her lab work, Smith plans to continue seeking beneficial lipid pathways, while looking for the most harmful omega 6 metabolites. “We found the good guys, now we’ll look for the bad ones,” says Smith. “If we find the pathways, maybe we can selectively block the bad metabolites. We would hope to start with drugs that are already available.”
Przemyslaw Sapieha and Andreas Stahl in Smith’s lab were co-first authors on the study. Funders include the National Eye Institute, the Children’s Hospital Boston Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities Research Center, Research to Prevent Blindness, the Alcon Research Institute, MacTel Foundation, the Roche Foundation for Anemia Research and the V. Kann Rasmussen Foundation.

Omega 3 fish oil EPA Slows Progress of Atherosclerosis in Diabetic Patients

Tuesday, July 12th, 2011

EPA Slows Progress of Atherosclerosis in Diabetic Patients

People with type 2 diabetes are more likely to develop heart disease, circulatory problems and damaged organs than people without the condition. Impaired blood circulation, particularly in the small blood vessels, contributes to damaged eyes, kidneys and feet. Thus, in caring for diabetic patients, doctors pay close attention to blood circulation. To date, there are not many ways of improving the damaged blood vessels that develop in atherosclerosis and type 2 diabetes.

The fatty acids in fish oils, known as long-chain omega-3s, are known to improve blood vessel function in patients with heart disease. They relax the muscles in the blood vessel walls, reduce inflammation and lower blood clotting. These properties make them good candidates for improving blood vessel function in type 2 diabetics. Accordingly, a team of Japanese investigators examined the effect of consuming nearly 2 g/day of EPA, on the thickness of the carotid artery wall in diabetic patients. EPA is one of the major long-chain omega-3 fatty acids in fish oil. This dose is about the equivalent of 2 servings of salmon/day. Study participants consumed the omega-3 supplements for 2 years. Patients who were given standard medical treatment, but no supplements, were used for comparison.

At the end of the study, patients consuming EPA had a significant decrease of 4.7% in the thickness of their carotid wall compared with an increase of 2.4% in patients receiving standard care. Measurements of blood flow also improved in the EPA patients. There was a small increase in glycosylated hemoglobin, a sensitive measure of elevated blood glucose, in the EPA group and a decrease in the control patients. While this outcome was undesirable, such values in individual patients would call for aggressive patient management. This finding indicates that diabetic patients who consume large amounts of fish oil should be regularly monitored by their doctors for blood glucose control. With regular check-ups, diabetic patients can obtain the heart and circulatory system benefits of fish oil without compromising their diabetes status. Overall, this study adds to the growing evidence that long-chain omega-3 fatty acids may slow the progression of atherosclerosis in patients with type 2 diabetes or coronary artery disease.

Omega 3 fish oil benefits may prevent Diabetic retinopathy

Thursday, March 31st, 2011

RESEARCH ARTICLE
ANTI-ANGIOGENESIS
5-Lipoxygenase Metabolite 4-HDHA Is a Mediator of the Antiangiogenic Effect of ω-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids
Przemyslaw Sapieha1,2,*, Andreas Stahl1,3,*, Jing Chen1, Molly R. Seaward1, Keirnan L. Willett1, Nathan M. Krah1, Roberta J. Dennison1, Kip M. Connor1,†, Christopher M. Aderman1, Elvira Liclican4, Arianna Carughi5,6, Dalia Perelman5,6, Yoshihide Kanaoka7, John Paul SanGiovanni8, Karsten Gronert4 and Lois E. H. Smith1,‡
+ Author Affiliations

1Department of Ophthalmology, Harvard Medical School, Children’s Hospital Boston, 300 Longwood Avenue, Boston, MA 02115, USA.
2Department of Ophthalmology, Maisonneuve-Rosemont Hospital Research Centre, University of Montreal, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H1T 2M4.
3University Eye Hospital Freiburg, Killianstrasse 5, Freiburg 79106, Germany.
4Vision Science Program, School of Optometry, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA.
5Health Research and Studies Center, Los Altos, CA 94022, USA.
6Palo Alto Medical Foundation, Palo Alto, CA 94301, USA.
7Department of Medicine, Harvard Medical School and Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Boston, MA 02115, USA.
8Division of Epidemiology and Clinical Research, National Eye Institute, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
‡To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: lois.smith@childrens.harvard.edu
ABSTRACT

Lipid signaling is dysregulated in many diseases with vascular pathology, including cancer, diabetic retinopathy, retinopathy of prematurity, and age-related macular degeneration. We have previously demonstrated that diets enriched in ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) effectively reduce pathological retinal neovascularization in a mouse model of oxygen-induced retinopathy, in part through metabolic products that suppress microglial-derived tumor necrosis factor–α. To better understand the protective effects of ω-3 PUFAs, we examined the relative importance of major lipid metabolic pathways and their products in contributing to this effect. ω-3 PUFA diets were fed to four lines of mice deficient in each key lipid-processing enzyme (cyclooxygenase 1 or 2, or lipoxygenase 5 or 12/15), retinopathy was induced by oxygen exposure; only loss of 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX) abrogated the protection against retinopathy of dietary ω-3 PUFAs. This protective effect was due to 5-LOX oxidation of the ω-3 PUFA lipid docosahexaenoic acid to 4-hydroxy-docosahexaenoic acid (4-HDHA). 4-HDHA directly inhibited endothelial cell proliferation and sprouting angiogenesis via peroxisome proliferator–activated receptor γ (PPARγ), independent of 4-HDHA’s anti-inflammatory effects. Our study suggests that ω-3 PUFAs may be profitably used as an alternative or supplement to current anti–vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) treatment for proliferative retinopathy and points to the therapeutic potential of ω-3 PUFAs and metabolites in other diseases of vasoproliferation. It also suggests that cyclooxygenase inhibitors such as aspirin and ibuprofen (but not lipoxygenase inhibitors such as zileuton) might be used without losing the beneficial effect of dietary ω-3 PUFA.

↵* These authors contributed equally to this work.
↵† Present address: Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary, Angiogenesis Laboratory, Department of Ophthalmology, Harvard Medical School, 243 Charles Street, Boston, MA 02114, USA.
Citation: P. Sapieha, A. Stahl, J. Chen, M. R. Seaward, K. L. Willett, N. M. Krah, R. J. Dennison, K. M. Connor, C. M. Aderman, E. Liclican, A. Carughi, D. Perelman, Y. Kanaoka, J. P. SanGiovanni, K. Gronert, L. E. H. Smith, 5-Lipoxygenase Metabolite 4-HDHA Is a Mediator of the Antiangiogenic Effect of ω-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids. Sci. Transl. Med. 3, 69ra12 (2011).

Omega 3 EPA fish oil benefits helps prevent obesity related diseases such as diabetes and heart disease

Friday, March 25th, 2011

A new study has suggested that a high intake of omega-3 fats found in fish helps prevent obesity-related chronic diseases such as diabetes and heart disease. Fish oil benefits .

The scientists come to the conclusion after studying Yup’ik Eskimos in Alaska, who on average consume 20 times more omega-3 fats from fish than people in the lower 48 states.

Researchers at Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center in collaboration conducted the study with the Center for Alaska Native Health Research at the University of Alaska-Fairbanks.

The fats the researchers were interested in measuring were those found in salmon, sardines and other fatty fish: docosahexaenoic acid, or DHA, and eicosapentaenoic acid, or EPA.

Researchers analyzed data from a community-based study of 330 people living in the Yukon Kuskokwim Delta region of southwest Alaska, 70 percent of whom were overweight or obese.

As expected, the researchers found that in participants with low blood levels of DHA and EPA, obesity strongly increased both blood triglycerides (a blood lipid abnormality) and C-reactive protein, or CRP (a measure of overall body inflammation).

Elevated levels of triglycerides and CRP increase the risk of heart disease and, possibly, diabetes.

“These results mimic those found in populations living in the Lower 48 who have similarly low blood levels of EPA and DHA,” said senior author Alan Kristal.

“However, the new finding was that obesity did not increase these risk factors among study participants with high blood levels of omega-3 fats, he said.

Lead author Zeina Makhoul said, “Interestingly, we found that obese persons with high blood levels of omega-3 fats had triglyceride and CRP concentrations that did not differ from those of normal-weight persons.

“It appeared that high intakes of omega-3-rich seafood protected Yup’ik Eskios from some of the harmful effects of obesity,” Makhoul added.

The study was published online March 23 in the European Journal of Clinical Nutrition. (ANI)

Omega-3-rich supplements may improve blood lipid levels of people with metabolic syndrome

Tuesday, March 8th, 2011

Omega-3-rich supplements may improve blood lipid levels of people with metabolic syndrome, reducing the risks of developing serious health problems, says a new study.

The research, published in The Journal of Nutrition, suggests that the effects of metabolic syndrome– a major risk factor for insulin resistance and diabetes – can be reduced through the addition of omega 3 fatty acids in low-fat, high-complex carbohydrate diets.

“Fish oil supplements correct many metabolic alterations associated with insulin resistance, including reduced postprandial plasma triglyceride concentration” stated the researchers, led by Jose Lopez-Miranda from the University of Cordoba, Spain.

Risk factors

Metabolic syndrome is the name given to a group of risk factors that frequently include obesity, hypertension, high levels of blood lipids, and high blood sugars.

The condition is a common precursor to type II diabetes, and is also strongly associated with increased risk of major health problems such as heart disease and stroke.

The causes of metabolic syndrome are unknown, although they are thought to involve both genetic and environmental factors – including poor diet.

One way to increase the overall health – and reduce the risks – of people with metabolic syndrome, has been to eat a diet low in saturated fat and high in complex carbohydrates. However, previous research has suggested that this diet does not help to reduce high levels of blood lipids – with some studies observing such a diet could even be raising blood lipid levels.

Positive effects

The new study looked into the effects of four different diet combinations on blood lipid metabolism, in 117 patients with metabolic syndrome.

In accordance with previous suggestions, the researchers found that a low-fat, high-complex carbohydrate diet had “several detrimental effects”, including significantly increasing total triglyceride levels, and triglyceride rich lipoprotein cholesterol levels.

In contrast, intake of the same diet supplemented with omega-3 was found to have no effects on blood lipid levels, with researchers observing that a diet rich in monounsaturated fats, or a low-fat diet rich in complex carbohydrates and omega-3 fatty acids, resulted in lower circulating blood lipid levels than a diet rich in high saturated fats or a diet low in fats and high in complex carbohydrates.

The data from the study suggest a place for higher omega-3 intake in people with metabolic syndrome, and supports previous research that suggests monounsaturated fatty acids can have a positive effect on blood lipid levels.

“The long-term effect of the low-fat, high-complex carbohydrate diet, pre vs. post intervention phases, showed several beneficial effects of long chain omega-3 PUFA supplementation,” stated the researchers.

“Our data suggest that long-term intake of an isocaloric, low-fat, high-carbohydrate diet supplemented with long chain omega-3 … have beneficial effects on postprandial lipoprotein response in patients with metabolic syndrome,”

Source: The Journal of Nutrition
Published online ahead of print, doi:10.3945/jn.109.120816
“A Low-Fat, High-Complex Carbohydrate Diet Supplemented with Long-Chain (n-3) Fatty Acids Alters the Postprandial Lipoprotein Profile in Patients with Metabolic Syndrome”
Authors: Y. Jimenez-Gomez, C. Marin, P. Perez-Martinez, et al

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