Posts Tagged ‘Cognitive and mental function’

Omega-3 fatty acid EPA cognitive decline: modulation by ApoEε4 allele and depression.

Sunday, October 16th, 2011

Omega-3 fatty acids and cognitive decline: modulation by ApoEε4 allele and depression.
Samieri C, Féart C, Proust-Lima C, Peuchant E, Dartigues JF, Amieva H, Barberger-Gateau P.

INSERM, U897, Department of Nutritional Epidemiology, Bordeaux, F-33076, France; University Victor Segalen Bordeaux 2, ISPED, 146 Rue Léo Saignat, Bordeaux, 33076, France.

Long-chain omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) may slow cognitive decline. The ε4 allele of the ApolipoproteinE (ApoE), the main genetic risk factor for Alzheimer’s disease, and depressive symptoms, which are frequently associated with cognitive impairment in older persons, may modify this relationship. We estimated the associations between EPA and DHA plasma levels and subsequent cognitive decline over 7 years, taking into account ApoE-ε4 status and depressive symptoms, in a prospective population-based cohort. Participants (≥ 65 years, n = 1,228 nondemented at baseline) were evaluated at least once over three follow-up visits using four cognitive tests. Plasma EPA was associated with slower decline on Benton Visual Retention Test (BVRT) performances in ApoE-ε4 carriers, or in subjects with high depressive symptoms at baseline. Plasma DHA was associated with slower decline on BVRT performances in ApoE-ε4 carriers only. EPA and DHA may contribute to delaying decline in visual working memory in ApoE-ε4 carriers. In older depressed subjects, EPA, but not DHA, may slow cognitive decline.

Omega 3 essential fatty acid EPA and Psychological Distress In Women

Thursday, August 18th, 2011

Lucas M, Asselin G, Mérette C, et al. Ethyl-eicosapentaenoic acid for the treatment of psychological distress and depressive symptoms in middle-aged women. Am J Clin Nutr.
BACKGROUND: Psychological distress (PD) and depressive symptoms are commonly observed during menopausal transition. Studies suggest that omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids may help alleviate depression.

OBJECTIVE: The objective was to compare enriched ethyl-eicosapentaenoic acid (E-EPA) supplementation with placebo for the treatment of PD and depressive symptoms in middle-aged women.

DESIGN: Women with moderate-to-severe PD (n = 120) were randomly assigned to receive 1.05 g E-EPA/d plus 0.15 g ethyl-docosahexaenoic acid/d (n = 59) or placebo (n = 61) for 8 wk. The main outcomes were 8-wk changes in PD scores [Psychological General Well-Being Schedule (PGWB)] and depressive scales [20-item Hopkins Symptom Checklist Depression Scale (HSCL-D-20) and the 21-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D-21)].

RESULTS: At baseline, women with PD were mildly to moderately depressed, and 24% met the major depressive episode (MDE) criteria of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition. After 8 wk, outcomes improved in both groups, but no significant differences were noted between them. Stratification analyses for MDE diagnosis at baseline indicated that differences in adjusted 8-wk changes between the E-EPA group without MDE (n = 46) and the placebo group (n = 45) were 8.0 (95% CI: 0.6, 15.3; P = 0.034) for the PGWB, -0.2 (95% CI: -0.01, -0.4; P = 0.040) for the HSCL-D-20, and -2.7 (95% CI: -0.3, -5.1; P = 0.030) for the HAM-D-21. Differences in adjusted 8-wk changes between the E-EPA group with MDE (n = 13) and the placebo group (n = 16) were not significant.

CONCLUSIONS: To our knowledge, this is the first trial of n-3 supplementation in the treatment of PD and depressive symptoms in middle-aged women. In women with PD without MDE at baseline, the 8-wk changes in PD and depressive scales improved significantly more with E-EPA than with placebo.

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