Posts Tagged ‘cancer nutrition’

Omega 3 fish oil supplementation slows growth of prostate cancer cells

Tuesday, November 1st, 2011

A low-fat diet with fish oil supplements eaten for four to six weeks prior to prostate removal slowed down the growth of prostate cancer cells — the number of rapidly dividing cells in human prostate cancer tissue compared to a traditional, high-fat Western diet.

Done by researchers at UCLA’s Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center, the short-term study also found that the men on the low-fat, fish oil supplement diet were able to change the composition of their cell membranes in both the healthy cells and the cancer cells in the prostate.

They had increased levels of omega-3 fatty acids from fish oil and decreased levels of omega-6 fatty acids from corn oil in the cell membranes, which may directly affect the biology of the cells, though further studies are needed, said Dr. William Aronson, the study’s first author and a researcher with UCLA’s Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center.

The study also found that blood obtained from patients after the low-fat, fish oil diet program slowed the growth of prostate cancer cells in a test tube as compared to blood from men on the Western diet, which did not slow cancer growth.

“The finding that the low-fat, fish oil diet reduced the number of rapidly dividing cells in the prostate cancer tissue is important because the rate at which the cells are dividing can be predictive of future cancer progression,” Aronson said. “The lower the rate of proliferation, the lesser the chances that the cancer will spread outside the prostate, where it is much harder to treat.”

The study appeared in Cancer Prevention Research, a peer-reviewed journal of the American Association for Cancer Research.

The study, which evaluated blood samples before and after the diet commenced and examined tissue from the removed prostate, validated previous studies by Aronson and others done on cell lines and in animal models.

Aronson said the study using human blood and tissue also proved that the changes prompted by what the men were eating were clearly evident in their prostate tissue – the “treatment” was indeed reaching the targeted organ because of the changes in the prostate cell membrane’s fatty acid composition.

“You truly are what you eat,” said Aronson, a clinical professor of urology, who also serves as chief of urologic oncology at the West Los Angeles Veterans Affairs Medical Center. “Based on our animal studies, we were hopeful that we would see the same effects in humans. We are extremely pleased about our findings, which suggest that by altering the diet, we may favorable affect the biology of prostate cancer.”

Aronson measured proliferation, or the rate of prostate cancer cell division, by staining tissue obtained from the radical prostatectomy specimens with an antibody against Ki-67, a protein involved in the cell-cycle progression and growth.

“The percentage of prostate cancer cells that stained for Ki-67 was determined by the pathologist, and this gave us an objective measurement of the percentage of cells that were actively dividing and therefore more aggressive,” said Aronson. “Previous studies found that patients with higher levels of Ki-67 in their prostate cancer tissue were more likely to have their prostate cancer progress to advanced stages, and were more likely to die from their prostate cancer. Thus, we are extremely encouraged by our findings that a low-fat diet with fish oil lowered Ki-67 levels and may have the potential to slow the progression of prostate cancer.”

Diet studies often are difficult to evaluate because getting patients to comply with dietary changes can be challenging. However, the food eaten by men in both arms of this study was precisely controlled, Aronson said.

The meals were prepared by chefs in the UCLA Clinical Translational Research Center and delivered in bulk to study participants several times a week. Participants also met with a dietician, kept food diaries and were required to return uneaten food.

“The key to this study was having the meals prepared and delivered to the study participants,” Aronson said. “This resulted in a very high rate of compliance, making the study very well controlled.”

The Western diet consisted of 40 percent of calories from fat, generally equivalent to what many Americans consume today. The fat sources also were typical of the American diet, and included high levels of omega-6 fatty acids from corn oil and low levels of fish oil that provide omega-3 fatty acids.

The low-fat diet consisted of 15 percent of calories from fat. Additionally, the men on this diet took five grams of fish oil per day in five capsules, three with breakfast and two with dinner, to provide fish oil omega-3 fatty acids. Omega-3 fatty acids have been found to reduce the incidence of heart disease and fight inflammation, and inflammation has been associated with certain cancers.

“Preclinical studies suggest that lowering dietary omega-6 fatty acids from corn oil and increasing omega-3 fatty acids from fish oil decreases the risk of prostate cancer development and progression,” the study states. “We found this diet intervention resulted in a decrease in omega-6 vs. omega-3 fatty acid ratios in benign and malignant prostate tissue and a decrease in malignant cell proliferation.”

Aronson cautioned that he could not recommend dietary changes based on this study because of its short duration and small sample size. However, based on these results he is organizing a much larger study of 100 men with prostate cancers who have elected active surveillance, meaning they’re not getting any treatment for their disease but are getting regular biopsies and check-ups.

The future study will randomly divide the men into a low-fat, fish oil supplement group and a traditional Western diet group and follow them for a year to evaluate the diet effects on prostate cancer proliferation.

Supplementation with omega 3 fish oil increases first-line chemotherapy efficacy in patients

Thursday, July 28th, 2011

BACKGROUND:
Palliative chemotherapy is aimed at increasing survival and palliating symptoms. However, the response rate to first-line chemotherapy in patients with nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is less than 30%. Experimental studies have shown that supplementation with omega 3  fish oil (FO) can increase chemotherapy efficacy without negatively affecting nontarget tissue. This study evaluated whether the combination of omega3 and fish oil and chemotherapy (carboplatin with vinorelbine or gemcitabine) provided a benefit over standard of care (SOC) on response rate and clinical benefit from chemotherapy in patients with advanced NSCLC.

METHODS:
Forty-six patients completed the study, n = 31 in the SOC group and n = 15 in the Omega 3 Fish oil  group (2.5 g EPA + DHA/day). Response to chemotherapy was determined by clinical examination and imaging. Response rate was defined as the sum of complete response plus partial response, and clinical benefit was defined as the sum of complete response, partial response, and stable disease divided by the number of patients. Toxicities were graded by a nurse before each chemotherapy cycle. Survival was calculated 1 year after study enrollment.

RESULTS:
Patients in the omega 3 fish oil group had an increased response rate and greater clinical benefit compared with the SOC group (60.0% vs 25.8%, P = .008; 80.0% vs 41.9%, P = .02, respectively). The incidence of dose-limiting toxicity did not differ between groups (P = .46). One-year survival tended to be greater in the FO group (60.0% vs 38.7%; P = .15).

CONCLUSIONS:
Compared with SOC, supplementation with omega 3 fish oil  results in increased chemotherapy efficacy without affecting the toxicity profile and may contribute to increased survival. Cancer 2011;. © 2011 American Cancer Society.

Copyright © 2011 American Cancer Society.

Omega 3 fish oil potential anti cancer linked with decrease in tumour formation.

Thursday, July 28th, 2011

Suppressed liver tumorigenesis in fat-1 mice with elevated omega-3 fatty acids is associated with increased omega-3 derived lipid mediators and reduced TNF-α.

Weylandt KH, Krause LF, Gomolka B, Chiu CY, Bilal S, Nadolny A, Waechter SF, Fischer A, Rothe M, Kang JX.
Source

Laboratory for Lipid Medicine and Technology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02114, USA. karsten.weylandt@charite.de
Abstract
Liver tumors, particularly hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), are a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The development of HCC is mostly associated with chronic inflammatory liver disease of various etiologies. Previous studies have shown that omega-3 (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) dampen inflammation in the liver and decrease formation of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α. In this study, we used the fat-1 transgenic mouse model, which endogenously forms n-3 PUFA from n-6 PUFA to determine the effect of an increased n-3 PUFA tissue status on tumor formation in the diethylnitrosamine (DEN)-induced liver tumor model. Our results showed a decrease in tumor formation, in terms of size and number, in fat-1 mice compared with wild-type littermates. Plasma TNF-α levels and liver cyclooxygenase-2 expression were markedly lower in fat-1 mice. Furthermore, there was a decreased fibrotic activity in the livers of fat-1 mice. Lipidomics analyses of lipid mediators revealed significantly increased levels of the n-3 PUFA-derived 18-hydroxyeicosapentaenoic acid (18-HEPE) and 17-hydroxydocosahexaenoic acid (17-HDHA) in the livers of fat-1 animals treated with DEN. In vitro experiments showed that 18-HEPE and 17-HDHA could effectively suppress lipopolysacharide-triggered TNF-α formation in a murine macrophage cell line. The results of this study provide evidence that an increased tissue status of n-3 PUFA suppresses liver tumorigenesis, probably through inhibiting liver inflammation. The findings also point to a potential anticancer role for the n-3 PUFA-derived lipid mediators 18-HEPE and 17-HDHA, which can downregulate the important proinflammatory and proproliferative factor TNF-α.

PMID: 21421544 [PubMed - in process] PMCID: PMC3106436 [Available on 2012/6/1]

higher intakes of marine-derived omega-3 fatty acids EPA and DHA which appear to be protective in non Hodgkin’s Lymphona (NHL)

Sunday, July 17th, 2011


In this population-based study, the dietary intake of various nutrients as well as the consumption of marine-derived omega-3 fatty acids and fish consumption was compared in 591 cases of non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma (NHL) and compared to 460 healthy controls from a Swedish population (residents aged 18-27 years). A highly-significant inverse relationship between the intake of marine-derived omega-3 fatty acids as docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) plus eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) combined and the risk of NHL was observed. With increasing intakes of DHA/EPA (combined) of >300 mg per 1000 kcal, a 40% lower risk of NHL was indicated as compared to those consuming less than 100 mg per 1000 kcal. Interestingly, no significant relationship between the consumption of total omega-3 fatty acids (which would include DHA/EPA plus a-linolenic acid which is consumed in much higher amounts than DHA/EPA) or omega-6 fatty acids and the risk of NHL was found. In addition, the authors reported that higher consumptions of fish (including salmon, mackerel, herring, cod) were also inversely correlated in a significant manner with the risk of NHL.

(It is noteworthy that the paper reports fish consumptions in fish servings/day ranging from <1.5 up to =3.0 in the higher intake sector. Upon evaluation of this paper, the DHA/EPA Omega-3 Institute contacted the lead author regarding an apparent error and has been assured by the lead author that the reported fish servings ‘per day’ as reported should actually have been in fish servings ‘per week’.)

Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma (NHL) – Lymphomas are cancers of the immune system involving lymphocytes (white blood cells) which can be sub-divided into non-Hodgkin’s lymphomas (NHL) and Hodgkin’s disease. In NHL, the white blood cells can progress abnormally within the lymph nodes and can also involve other organs associated with the immune system. While it may occur at any age, deaths due to NHL occur more often amongst the elderly (over the age of 65 years). Although a relatively uncommon cancer, the incidence of NHL is increasing rapidly in North America for unknown reasons.

Dr. Holub’s Comments:

Considering the surge in the frequency of NHL in North America and elsewhere during recent years, potential dietary strategies and public health advice for reducing the development of NHL are of considerable interest. This population-based study is therefore of potential importance in this regard. The higher intakes of marine-derived omega-3 fatty acids which appear to be protective against NHL (>300 mg per 1000 kcal) would amount to approximately 650 mg of DHA/EPA (combined) per day based on a daily caloric intake of approximately 2,150 kcal per day. It is interesting to note that this intake (650 mg/day) is the recommended acceptable intake suggested at the ISSFAL workshop held in 1999 in Bethesda , Maryland by a group of scientific experts who met to evaluate omega-3 fatty acids for overall health (J. Am. Coll. Nutr. 18: 487-489, 1999).

As noted (see above), in Prof. Holub’s conversation and correspondence exchange with Dr. Ellen Chang (lead author of this new release), = 3.0 servings of fatty fish per week (and not per day as stated in the original text of the published paper) provided an approximate 50% lower observed incidence of NHL as compared to fatty fish servings of <1.5 per week.

Nutrient Intake and Risk of Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma

Chang, Ellen T., et al., Am J Epidemiol. 164:1222-1232 (2006).

Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
North

Summary:

Omega 3 and Prostate Cancer

Wednesday, March 30th, 2011

A diet high in omega-3 fatty acids offers protection against advanced prostate cancer, even in men who carry a particular variant in the COX-2 gene that is known to raise the risk of the disease.

“Previous research has shown protection (by omega-3 fatty acids) against prostate cancer, but this is one of the first studies to show protection against advanced prostate cancer and interaction with COX-2,” Dr. John S. Witte of the University of California, San Francisco noted in a statement from the American Association for Cancer Research.

Witte and colleagues studied 466 men diagnosed with aggressive prostate cancer and 478 healthy matched controls. They assessed diet using a “food frequency” questionnaire and genotyped the men for nine COX-2 variants.

The researchers report in the journal Clinical Cancer Research that increasing intake of long-chain omega-3 fatty acids — the kind found in dark fish, like salmon, and shellfish — was strongly associated with a decreased risk of aggressive prostate cancer.

Men who consumed the most long-chain omega-3 fatty acids had a 63 percent reduced risk of aggressive prostate cancer compared to men who consumed the least.

“Importantly,” Witte and colleagues say, this protective effect was even stronger in men who carried the COX-2 variant, rs4647310, which is a risk factor for prostate cancer.

Specifically, men with low intake of long-chain omega-3 fatty acids and this particular variant had a more than fivefold increased risk of advanced prostate cancer. But men with high intake of omega-3 fatty acids had a substantially reduced risk, even if they carried the COX-2 rs4647310 variant.

In other words, the increased risk of prostate cancer associated with the COX-2 rs4647310 variant was “essentially reversed by increasing omega-3 fatty acid intake by a half a gram per day,” Witte said.

Omega 3 EPA curbs precancerous growths in those prone to bowel cancer, study suggests.

Tuesday, March 15th, 2011

A purified form of omega 3 EPA cuts the number and size of precancerous bowel growths (polyps) in people whose genetic make-up predisposes them to bowel cancer, finds research published ahead of print in the journal Gut. Furthermore, this particular omega 3 (eicosapentaenoic acid or EPA) seems to be as effective as the prescription medicine used to treat familial bowel polyps, but without the associated cardiovascular side effects.
The researchers base their findings on 55 patients, all of whom had the inherited genetic mutation that prompts the development of precancerous polyps in the bowel — known as familial adenomatous polyposis, or FAP for short.
People with FAP are at significantly increased risk of developing bowel cancer and require surgery to remove large sections of their bowel. Subsequently, some also need regular monitoring. All 55 patients had previously undergone surgery and were being monitored by endoscopy — a procedure involving a camera on the end of a flexible tube passed through the rectum.
Twenty eight of the patients were randomly assigned to six months of treatment with 2 g daily of a new highly purified form of the omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) EPA. The other 27 were given the same amount of a dummy treatment (placebo).
. Dietary omega 3 PUFA mainly comes from oily fish, such as salmon, mackerel, and herring.
An assessment of the number and size of polyps at the beginning and end of the six month study period revealed significant differences between the two groups of patients. The number of polyps increased by almost 10% among those treated with the placebo, but fell by more than 12% among those treated with the EPA capsules, representing a difference of almost 22.5%.
This was still clinically significant, even after taking account of influential factors, such as age and sex.
Similarly, polyp size increased by more than 17% among those in the placebo group but fell by more than 12.5% in those taking the EPA capsules, representing a difference of just under 30%.
The authors note that the effects of EPA were similar to those produced by celecoxib, which is used to help curb the growth of new and existing polyps in patients with FAP.
The use of celecoxib has been associated with harmful cardiovascular side effects in older patients. In this study, EPA produced few side effects and these were no more common than those produced by the placebo. This formulation of omega 3 might also help to prevent bowel cancer in people with the common non-familial form of bowel polyps, suggest the authors. As omega 3 PUFAs in general are safe and even good for cardiovascular health, Take Omega 3 EPA could be especially suitable for older patients at risk of both bowel cancer and heart disease, they say.

Breast Cancer now affecting one in eight women can takeomega3 help prevent this disease ?

Friday, February 4th, 2011

This shocking statistic is believed to be a result of the way we now live our lives . Alcohol , lack of exercise , stress and dietary factors are all believed to contribute to this . Can omega 3 play a part in preventing women getting breast cancer ? What can women do to help reduce the risk of getting breast cancer ? These will perhaps be the questions that most women not only in UK but globally as breast cancer is a true global disease. The first study of its kind has revealed that postmenopausal women who took the omega 3 supplements reduced risk by a third.

The research, which involved 35,000 women and took six years to complete, has caused such excitement among experts that they are calling for larger and more detailed studies to urgently be carried out. Could the very action of take a high grade omega 3 supplement such as takeomega3 help in some way to prevent breast cancer ? Takeomega 3 has the highest levels of EPA currently available of any omega3 supplement with 750mg per capsule as a result it is an extremely potent anti inflammatory formulation.

They hope that it may be possible to use fish oils as a way to help women slash their risk of suffering from breast tumours.

Fish Oil contains high levels of fatty acids that can reduce inflammation. Studies have already suggested they may boost brain cells, keep eyes healthy and possibly protect against ageing.

But other studies have dismissed these claims, saying the evidence is still not there. The latest study, by a respected team in America, is the first to actively monitor women who take fish oils and see how many develop breast cancer

The team also looked at whether other supplements like St John’s Wort, soy and ginkgo biloba had any affect on the risk of tumours. All of the women in the study were between 50 and 76 and had been through the menopause.

They were asked if they had taken fish oils before or were taking them at the start of the study and how often they took them.

The team, whose study is published in the Journal of Cancer, Epidemiology, Biomarkers and Prevention, found 83 per cent took fish oils at least four times a week and 60 per cent daily. During the following six years, 880 suffered from breast cancer.

The data revealed that those who took fish oils at the start of the study had a 32 per cent reduced risk of ductal breast cancer, the most common form of the disease which affects eight in 10 sufferers.

However, there was no reduction in risk of lobular breast cancer that affects around one in 10 sufferers. Nor was there a reduced risk of women who had taken fish oils up to a decade earlier but stopped or those who took other supplements.

The team, from the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center in Seattle, said the findings were interesting but it was too early to say if the fish oil is responsible. Scientists believe fish oils might work by reducing inflammation which may prevent cells from becoming damaged and turning cancerous.

Previous studies on cells in the lab and on animals both suggest fish oils might be able to protect against cancer. Scientists are keen to find an answer because more and more people have been taking supplements for decades.

This means they have been used for long enough to gauge whether they are having a positive or negative effect on long-term health. So far British experts warn against taking multi-vitamins to protect against cancer, with some warning they may increase the risk.

But the evidence on fish oils is less clear.Dr Panagiota Mitrou, deputy head of science for the World Cancer Research Fund, said: “The findings are very interesting because it is the first time fish oil has been linked to lower breast cancer risk in this type of study.

“But as the authors suggest, because this is a single study the findings are not enough for us to be confident that women can reduce their risk of breast cancer by taking fish oil supplements. More research is now needed to find out if this is actually the case.

“There is already very strong scientific evidence about how women can reduce their breast cancer risk. In fact scientists estimate that about 40 per cent of breast cancer cases in the UK could be prevented through being physically active, maintaining a healthy weight and reducing the alcohol they drink.”

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