Posts Tagged ‘anti depressants’

Omega 3 essential fatty acid EPA and Psychological Distress In Women

Thursday, August 18th, 2011

Lucas M, Asselin G, Mérette C, et al. Ethyl-eicosapentaenoic acid for the treatment of psychological distress and depressive symptoms in middle-aged women. Am J Clin Nutr.
BACKGROUND: Psychological distress (PD) and depressive symptoms are commonly observed during menopausal transition. Studies suggest that omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids may help alleviate depression.

OBJECTIVE: The objective was to compare enriched ethyl-eicosapentaenoic acid (E-EPA) supplementation with placebo for the treatment of PD and depressive symptoms in middle-aged women.

DESIGN: Women with moderate-to-severe PD (n = 120) were randomly assigned to receive 1.05 g E-EPA/d plus 0.15 g ethyl-docosahexaenoic acid/d (n = 59) or placebo (n = 61) for 8 wk. The main outcomes were 8-wk changes in PD scores [Psychological General Well-Being Schedule (PGWB)] and depressive scales [20-item Hopkins Symptom Checklist Depression Scale (HSCL-D-20) and the 21-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D-21)].

RESULTS: At baseline, women with PD were mildly to moderately depressed, and 24% met the major depressive episode (MDE) criteria of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition. After 8 wk, outcomes improved in both groups, but no significant differences were noted between them. Stratification analyses for MDE diagnosis at baseline indicated that differences in adjusted 8-wk changes between the E-EPA group without MDE (n = 46) and the placebo group (n = 45) were 8.0 (95% CI: 0.6, 15.3; P = 0.034) for the PGWB, -0.2 (95% CI: -0.01, -0.4; P = 0.040) for the HSCL-D-20, and -2.7 (95% CI: -0.3, -5.1; P = 0.030) for the HAM-D-21. Differences in adjusted 8-wk changes between the E-EPA group with MDE (n = 13) and the placebo group (n = 16) were not significant.

CONCLUSIONS: To our knowledge, this is the first trial of n-3 supplementation in the treatment of PD and depressive symptoms in middle-aged women. In women with PD without MDE at baseline, the 8-wk changes in PD and depressive scales improved significantly more with E-EPA than with placebo.

Scientific research reveals brain alterations linking omega 3 fish oil deficit with depression

Thursday, May 26th, 2011

The link between deficits of omega-3 poly-unsaturated fatty acids (AGPO-3) and the onset of depressive disorders is not new in the medical field. However, what has not been known until now is the brain mechanism by which diet can condition mental health to a certain extent. Research undertaken by scientists in Bordeaux (France) and at the Faculty of Medicine and Odontology of the University of the Basque Country (UPV/EHU) and published in Nature Neuroscience, provides new clues to understanding this phenomenon.

The name of the research work, ‘Omega-3 nutritional deficiencies annul the neuronal functions of the endocannabinoid system’ describes the research findings, endocannabinoid system being linked to the onset of depressive disorders.

According to Doctor Susana Mato, researcher in the Ramón y Cajal programme, attached to the Neurosciences Department of the Faculty of Medicine and Odontology at the UPV/EHU and member of the Neurobiology Group, “we have observed that, in mice subjected to a diet low in omega-3 poly-unsaturated fatty acids, they have lower AGPO-3 brain levels, and this fact is associated with an alteration in the functioning of the endocannabinoid system”. More concretely, the researcher points to the confirmation of “the existence of a deficit in the signalling of the CB1 cannabinoid receptor in the prefrontal cortex of the brain. This protein — the CB1 cannabinoid receptor — has been linked, over the last decade and in various studies, to depressive disorders.”

Doctor Rafael Rodríguez-Puertas, research worker responsible for the Neurochemical and Neurodegeneration team at the Faculty of Medicine and Odontology at the UPV/EHU, points out that “certain forms of synaptic plasticity — a change in the efficiency of neuronal communication — measured by the brain’s endocannabinoid system, disappear specifically from certain zones of the brains of mice with AGPO-3 deficit”.

Despite several example in the scientific literature referring to the existence of a link between the low presence of AGPO-3 in the diet and depressive disorders, Susana Mato recognises that “little more is known about how modern Western diets, poor in AGPO-3, affect brain function and what might be the reason for a greater rate of depression associated with a deficit of these fatty acids”.

As doctor Rodríguez-Puertas points out, “thanks to the results of this research new possibilities are opened up for undertaking deeper research, such as how diet modifies the functioning of the brain in general and the endocannabinoid system in particular, and how this is linked to mental disorders”.

It also, “reinforces the idea that manipulating the endocannabinoid system can be useful for the treatment of depressive disorders, although the data we have up to now is very green for us to say what would be the ideal way to do so”, pointed out Dr Mato.

Collaboration amongst European researchers

The research work started with two French teams located in Bordeaux and led respectively by doctors Olivier J Manzoni and Sophie Layé. They have been working for a number of years with mice which show low levels of AGPO-3 in their brain, due to a low diet in these fatty acids.

“Dr Manzoni’s team discovered that the synaptic plasticity of the neuronal connections, which is mediated by endocannabinoids, disappears in these animals”, pointed out Dr S. Mato. To this end, in 2008, they made contact with researchers at the Faculty of Medicine at the UPV/EHU in order to obtain their collaboration in undertaking new research in order to identify possible change sin the expression and activity of the cannabinoid receptors.

In fact, in order to draw conclusions from the study, it has been necessary to employ a large number of research techniques, amongst which were “the analysis of the brain’s fatty acids, electrophysiology, autoradiography of receptors, the western blot (for quantification of proteins), the determination of levels of endocannabinoids and behaviour tests”, listed Doctor Rodríguez-Puertas. “In fact”, continued the researcher, “in our research team we are experts in the autoradiography of receptors technique and in anatomically identifying the activation of the receptors of the endocannabinoid system”.

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