Archive for January, 2013

High Dose EPA / DHA up to 5g / day DO NOT increase risk of bleeding -European Food Safety Authority

Wednesday, January 16th, 2013

European Food Safety Authority state
Long-term supplemental intakes of EPA and DHA combined up to about 5 g/day do not increase the risk of spontaneous bleeding episodes or bleeding complications even in subjects at high risk of bleeding (e.g. taking acetylsalicylic acid or anti-coagulants).or affect glucose homeostasis immune function or lipid peroxidation,

DHA at doses of 2 4 g/day, induce an increase in LDL-cholesterol concentrations of about 3 % which may not have an adverse effect on cardiovascular disease risk, whereas EPA at doses up to 4 g/day has no significant effect on LDL cholesterol.

Supplemental intakes of EPA and DHA combined at doses up to 5 g/day, and supplemental intakes of EPA alone up to 1.8 g/day, do not raise safety concerns for adults.

he Panel concludes that the available data are not sufficient to establish a tolerable upper intake level for n-3 LCPUFA (DHA, EPA, and DPA, individually or combined) for any population group.

At observed intake levels, consumption of n-3 LCPUFA has not been associated with adverse effects in healthy children or adults.

The Panel considers that supplemental intakes of EPA and DHA combined at doses up to 5 g/day, and supplemental intakes of EPA alone up to 1.8 g/day, do not raise safety concerns for the adult population. Limited data are available on the effects of long-term supplementation with these n-3 LCPUFAs at higher doses. The Panel also notes that observed intakes of EPA and DHA from food and food supplements in European populations are generally below these amounts.

Statins appear to inhibit omega3

Wednesday, January 16th, 2013

Statins Appear to Inhibit Omega-3s
de Lorgeril M, Salen P, Defaye P, et al.

Recent findings on the health effects of omega-3 fatty acids and statins, and their interactions: do statins inhibit omega-3? BMC Med. 2013 Jan 4;11(1):5.

Early randomized controlled trials (RCTs) demonstrated the health benefits of omega-3 fatty acids (n-3), whereas recent RCTs were negative. We now address the issue, focusing on the temporal changes having occurred: most patients in recent RCTs are no longer n-3 deficient and the vast majority are now treated with statins.

Recent RCTs testing n-3 against arrhythmias suggest that n-3 reduce the risk only in patients not taking a statin. Other recent RCTs in secondary prevention were negative although, in a post-hoc analysis separating statin users and non-users, non-significant protection of n-3 was observed among statin non-users whereas statin users had no effect. Recent RCTs testing statins – after the implementation of the New Clinical Trial Regulation in 2007 – are negative (or flawed) suggesting that the lack of effect of n-3 cannot be attributed to a parallel protection by statins.

Finally, statins favor the metabolism of omega-6 fatty acids (n-6), which in turn inhibits n-3 and, contrary to n-3, they increase insulin resistance and the risk of diabetes. Thus, omega3 essential fatty acids and statins are counteractive at several levels and statins appear to inhibit omega 3 essential fatty acids EPA and DHA

Statins appear to inhibit omega 3’s

Wednesday, January 16th, 2013

2013/01/04
BMCM – Statins Appear to Inhibit Omega-3s

de Lorgeril M, Salen P, Defaye P, et al. Recent findings on the health effects of omega-3 fatty acids and statins, and their interactions: do statins inhibit omega-3? BMC Med. 2013 Jan 4;11(1):5.

Early randomized controlled trials (RCTs) demonstrated the health benefits of omega-3 fatty acids (n-3), whereas recent RCTs were negative. We now address the issue, focusing on the temporal changes having occurred: most patients in recent RCTs are no longer n-3 deficient and the vast majority are now treated with statins.

Recent RCTs testing n-3 against arrhythmias suggest that n-3 reduce the risk only in patients not taking a statin. Other recent RCTs in secondary prevention were negative although, in a post-hoc analysis separating statin users and non-users, non-significant protection of n-3 was observed among statin non-users whereas statin users had no effect. Recent RCTs testing statins – after the implementation of the New Clinical Trial Regulation in 2007 – are negative (or flawed) suggesting that the lack of effect of n-3 cannot be attributed to a parallel protection by statins.

Finally, statins favor the metabolism of omega-6 fatty acids (n-6), which in turn inhibits n-3 and, contrary to n-3, they increase insulin resistance and the risk of diabetes. Thus, omega3 essential fatty acids n-3 and statins are counteractive at several levels and statins appear to inhibit omega3

Statins appear to inhibit omega 3’s

Wednesday, January 16th, 2013

2013/01/04
BMCM – Statins Appear to Inhibit Omega-3s

de Lorgeril M, Salen P, Defaye P, et al. Recent findings on the health effects of omega-3 fatty acids and statins, and their interactions: do statins inhibit omega-3? BMC Med. 2013 Jan 4;11(1):5.

Early randomized controlled trials (RCTs) demonstrated the health benefits of omega-3 fatty acids (n-3), whereas recent RCTs were negative. We now address the issue, focusing on the temporal changes having occurred: most patients in recent RCTs are no longer n-3 deficient and the vast majority are now treated with statins.

Recent RCTs testing n-3 against arrhythmias suggest that n-3 reduce the risk only in patients not taking a statin. Other recent RCTs in secondary prevention were negative although, in a post-hoc analysis separating statin users and non-users, non-significant protection of n-3 was observed among statin non-users whereas statin users had no effect. Recent RCTs testing statins – after the implementation of the New Clinical Trial Regulation in 2007 – are negative (or flawed) suggesting that the lack of effect of n-3 cannot be attributed to a parallel protection by statins.

Finally, statins favor the metabolism of omega-6 fatty acids (n-6), which in turn inhibits n-3 and, contrary to n-3, they increase insulin resistance and the risk of diabetes. Thus, omega3 essential fatty acids n-3 and statins are counteractive at several levels and statins appear to inhibit omega3

High strength Omega3 appears to inhibit breast cancer cell growth

Wednesday, January 16th, 2013

Although evidence has shown the regulating effect of n-3 poly-unsaturated fatty acid (n-3 PUFA) marine sourced omega3 fish oil on cell signaling transduction, it remains unknown whether n-3 PUFA treatment modulates estrogen signaling.

The current study showed that docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22:6), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, C20:5) shifted the pro-survival and proliferative effect of estrogen to a pro-apoptotic effect in human breast cancer (BCa) MCF-7 and T47D cells. 17 β-estradiol (E2) enhanced the inhibitory effect of n-3 PUFAs on BCa cell growth. The IC50 of DHA or EPA in MCF-7 cells decreased when combined with E2 (10 nM) treatment (from 173 µM for DHA only to 113 µM for DHA+E2, and from 187 µm for EPA only to 130 µm for EPA+E2). E2 also augmented apoptosis in n-3 PUFA-treated BCa cells. In contrast, in cells treated with stearic acid (SA, C18:0) as well as cells not treated with fatty acid, E2 promoted breast cancer cell growth. Classical (nuclear) estrogen receptors may not be involved in the pro-apoptotic effects of E2 on the n-3 PUFA-treated BCa cells because ERα agonist failed to elicit, and ERα knockdown failed to block E2 pro-apoptotic effects. Subsequent studies reveal that G protein coupled estrogen receptor 1 (GPER1) may mediate the pro-apoptotic effect of estrogen. N-3 PUFA treatment initiated the pro-apoptotic signaling of estrogen by increasing GPER1-cAMP-PKA signaling response, and blunting EGFR, Erk 1/2, and AKT activity.

These findings may not only provide the evidence to link n-3 PUFAs omega 3 biologic effects and the pro-apoptotic signaling of estrogen in breast cancer cells, but also shed new insight into the potential application of n-3 PUFAs in Breast Cancer treatment.

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