Archive for March, 2012

Omega 3 essential fatty acids Positively Related to Sperm Morphology – better sperm quality in diets high in omega3 essential fatty acid

Saturday, March 17th, 2012

Omega 3 essential fatty acids Positively Related to Sperm Morphology – better sperm quality in diets high in omega3 essential fatty acid
Attaman JA, Toth TL, Furtado J, et al. Dietary fat and semen quality among men attending a fertility clinic. Hum Reprod. 2012 Mar 13.
BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to examine the relation between dietary fats and semen quality parameters.

METHODS: Data from 99 men with complete dietary and semen quality data were analyzed. Fatty acid levels in sperm and seminal plasma were measured using gas chromatography in a subgroup of men (n = 23). Linear regression was used to determine associations while adjusting for potential confounders.

RESULTS: Men were primarily Caucasian (89%) with a mean (SD) age of 36.4 (5.3) years; 71% were overweight or obese; and 67% were never smokers. Higher total fat intake was negatively related to total sperm count and concentration. Men in the highest third of total fat intake had 43% (95% confidence interval (CI): 62-14%) lower total sperm count and 38% (95% CI: 58-10%) lower sperm concentration than men in the lowest third (P(trend) = 0.01). This association was driven by intake of saturated fats. Levels of saturated fatty acids in sperm were also negatively related to sperm concentration (r= -0.53), but saturated fat intake was unrelated to sperm levels (r = 0.09). Higher intake of omega-3 polyunsaturated fats was related to a more favorable sperm morphology. Men in the highest third of omega-3 fatty acids had 1.9% (0.4-3.5%) higher normal morphology than men in the lowest third (P(trend) = 0.02).

CONCLUSIONS: In this preliminary cross-sectional study, high intake of saturated fats was negatively related to sperm concentration whereas higher intake of omega-3 fats was positively related to sperm morphology. Further, studies with larger samples are now required to confirm these findings.

Omega-3 fish oil is Linked To Decreased Inflammation And Decreased Fatigue in Breast Cancer

Saturday, March 17th, 2012

Omega-3 fish oil is Linked To Decreased Inflammation And Decreased Fatigue in Breast Cancer – Omega 3 active ingredient EPA is the most potent natural anti inflammatory
Alfano CM, Imayama I, Neuhouser ML, et al. Fatigue, Inflammation, and ω-3 and ω-6 Fatty Acid Intake Among Breast Cancer Survivors. J Clin Oncol. 2012 Mar 12.
PURPOSE: Evidence suggests that inflammation may drive fatigue in cancer survivors. Research in healthy populations has shown reduced inflammation with higher dietary intake of Omega 3 ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), which could potentially reduce fatigue. This study investigated fatigue, inflammation, and intake of Omega 3 ω-3 and Omega 6 ω-6 PUFAs among breast cancer survivors.

METHODS: Six hundred thirty-three survivors (mean age, 56 years; stage I to IIIA) participating in the Health, Eating, Activity, and Lifestyle Study completed a food frequency/dietary supplement questionnaire and provided a blood sample assayed for C-reactive protein (CRP) and serum amyloid A (30 months after diagnosis) and completed the Piper Fatigue Scale and Short Form-36 (SF-36) vitality scale (39 months after diagnosis). Analysis of covariance and logistic regression models tested relationships between inflammation and fatigue, inflammation and Omega3 ω-3 and Omega 3 ω-6 PUFA intake, and PUFA intake and fatigue, controlling for three incremental levels of confounders. Fatigue was analyzed continuously (Piper scales) and dichotomously (SF-36 vitality ≤ 50).

Results: Behavioral (P = .003) and sensory (P = .001) fatigue scale scores were higher by increasing CRP tertile; relationships were attenuated after adjustment for medication use and comorbidity. Survivors with high CRP had 1.8 times greater odds of fatigue after full adjustment (P < .05). Higher intake of ω-6 relative to ω-3 PUFAs was associated with greater CRP (P = .01 after full adjustment) and greater odds of fatigue (odds ratio, 2.6 for the highest v lowest intake; P < .05).

CONCLUSION: Results link higher intake of Omega3 ω-3 PUFAs, decreased inflammation, and decreased physical aspects of fatigue. Future studies should test whether Omega3 ω-3 supplementation may reduce fatigue among significantly fatigued breast cancer survivors.

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Omega 3 fish oil essential fatty acid EPA has benefits for Vitiligo

Friday, March 2nd, 2012

Vitiligo and diet: A theoretical molecular approach with practical implications

MR Namazi1, G.O.H Chee Leok2
1 Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran
2 National Skin Center, Singapore

The psychologically devastating disorder vitiligo affects 1% of the world’s population. Over the years, the neurological, biochemical, immunological and genetic aspects of the pathobiology of this enigmatic disorder have been explored. Vitiligo has a multifactorial, multistep etiology, always characterized by an increase of external or internal phenol/catechol concentrations and reactive oxygen species. It is recently suggested that reactive oxygen species can alter melanocyte-specific factors to produce neo-antigens and can also amplify antigen presentation and autoimmune destruction of melanocytes. [3] It is also proposed that phenol-containing chemicals can compete with tyrosine to produce reactive quinones. This conversion is reinforced by a disturbed redox balance seen in vitiligo (increased hydrogen peroxide). Such reactive quinones can be covalently bound to the catalytic center of tyrosinase to give a neo-antigen. Micromolar (non-cytotoxic) quantities of O -quinones may be sufficient in this haptenation to mount an immune response. O -quinones derived from estrogen can serve as surrogate substrates of tyrosinase and cause haptenation. [2Furthermore, estrogen is implicated to play an important role in the development of autoimmunity. Given the important contribution of reactive oxygen species, estrogen and phenol-containing agents to the pathophysiology of vitiligo, this article tries to draw attention to the potential link between nutrition and vitiligo.

Given the pivotal role of oxidative stress in the pathobiology of vitiligo, α-tochopherol was used in combination with psoralen with ultraviolet A (PUVA) in order to shorten the duration of the treatment. Also, α-tochopherol cream combined with weak to moderate topical corticosteroids or PUVA was proposed and used with success. [6] Some patients with active or stable vitiligo were treated with an antioxidant pool (tochopherol acetate, ubiquinone, selenomethionine, methionine) in order to increase both the enzymatic and the non-enzymatic antioxidant pattern. After 3 months of therapy, the progression of the vitiligo was stopped and, in some cases, repigmentation of the most recent lesions was observed.

Given the pivotal role of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of vitiligo, food contaminants/additives/preservatives and cosmetic products could aggravate vitiligo because they produce oxidative stress in the skin. Increased consumption of omega-6 or a vegetable source of oils and decreased omega-3 intake may increase, in vivo , the production of free radicals and pro-inflammatory cytokines. Vegetable oil could exacerbate autoimmune disease by increasing the free radical formation through decreasing the antioxidant enzyme mRNA levels. In contrast, omega-3 lipid intake in the presence of an antioxidant supplement appears to exert protection against autoimmunity by enhancing antioxidant enzymes and transforming growth factor-β mRNA levels. Omega-3 fatty acids and eicosapentaenoic acid, in particular, are well-documented inhibitors of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). In most human nutritional studies, the enrichment of cell membranes with omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids has been reported to increase the glutathione (GSH) peroxidase activity. Moreover, the organic compound indole-3-carbinol, found in omega-3 fatty acids, induces CYP1A1, which hydroxylates estrogens into 2-hydroxyestrone. It is advisable, therefore, that vitiligo patients avoid omega-6 lipids and use omega-3 lipids. Moreover, omega-3 fatty acids play a critical role in the development and function of the central nervous system and evidence from epidemiological, laboratory and clinical studies suggest that omega-3 fatty acids may favorably influence the vulnerability and outcome in depressive disorders. [This fact points further to the beneficial effect of these lipids against vitiligo, as 20% of the vitiligo patients are reported to be depressed about their illness.
Mango, cashew, pistaschio, oak, cassava, areca nut, red chillies, cherry, raspberry, cranberry, blackberry and tea contain naturally occurring plant phenol and polyphenolic compounds (tannins), which may aggravate vitiligo by the mechanism outlined above. Moreover, it is reported that phenol molecules induce the release of interleukin-1α (IL-1α) and TNF-α from keratinocytes. Increased TNF-α and IL1-α levels in the lesional skin of patients with non-segmental vitiligo has been recently reported and it is suggested that these cytokines play important roles in the pathophysiology of vitiligo. Additionally, tannins induce apoptosis in vitro , inhibit cellular enzymes, bind to cell membrane and make it fragile and chelate metal ions. All these effects can aggravate vitiligo. The high phenol and tannin content of the foods widely consumed in India could explain why the highest incidence of vitiligo is seen in this country

Omega-3 fish oil essential fatty acid supplementation in advanced kidney disease.

Friday, March 2nd, 2012

Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation in advanced kidney disease.

Friedman AN.

Department of Medicine, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana 46202, USA. allfried@iupui.edu

Abstract

Long-chain polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acids (n-3 PUFA), which are obtained primarily from dietary sources such as coldwater fish, have diverse and potent mediating effects on the immune, inflammatory, and metabolic pathways, signal transduction, and cell membrane physiology. N-3 PUFA are increasingly being studied for their clinical benefits in a variety of medical conditions, some of which are relevant to individuals with advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD). These include, among others, renoprotection in IgA nephropathy, cardioprotective effects via a variety of mechanisms including blood pressure and triglyceride reduction, maintenance of dialysis access patency, sparing of inflammation-associated muscle loss, and even mortality. However, further confirmatory work needs to be performed before establishing formal intake recommendations and dosing goals for advanced CKD patients. In the meantime, the current American Heart Association n-3 PUFA intake guidelines can be applied to CKD patients, especially given n-3 PUFA’s potential benefits and negligible risk profile. Over time, it will be incumbent upon the nephrology community to more clearly define the utility and optimal dosing of n-3 PUFA in CKD patients with advanced disease via randomized clinical trials.

Effect of omega 3 essential fatty acid and Co enzymeQ10 on chronic kidney disease.

Friday, March 2nd, 2012

The effects of omega3 fatty acids / fish oil and coenzyme Q10 on blood pressure and heart rate in chronic kidney disease: a randomized controlled trial.
Mori TA, Burke V, Puddey I, Irish A, Cowpland CA, Beilin L, Dogra G, Watts GF.
Source

University of Western Australia and the Cardiovascular Research Centre, Perth, Western Australia. trevor.mori@uwa.edu.au
Abstract
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE:
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) associates with increased cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. Hypertension is a major determinant of progression of CKD. Omega-3 fatty acids (omger3FA) protect against CVD via improvements in blood pressure, heart rate, vascular reactivity and serum lipids. Coenzyme Q(10) (CoQ) may improve blood pressure and vascular function. This study determined whether omega3FA and CoQ have independent or additive effects in improving the cardiovascular profile, particularly blood pressure and heart rate, in nondiabetic patients with CKD stages 3-4.
METHODS:
In a double-blind, placebo-controlled intervention, patients were randomized to either omega3FA (4 g), CoQ (200 mg), both supplements or control (4 g), daily for 8 weeks.
RESULTS:
Eighty-five patients aged 56.5 +/- 1.4 years; BMI 27.3 +/- 0.5 kg/m(2); supine blood pressure 125.0/72.3mmHg; and glomerular filtration rate 35.8 +/- 1.2 ml/min/1.73m(2), were randomized. Seventy-four completed the study. omega3FA, but not CoQ, reduced 24-h ambulatory heart rate (P<0.0001) and blood pressure (P<0.0001). Main effects for omega3FA on 24-h measurements were -3.3 +/- 0.7/ -2.9 +/- 0.5mmHg and -4.0 +/- 0.5 bpm. Postintervention blood pressure showed significant interactions between treatments. omega3FA reduced triglycerides 24% (P<0.001). There were no changes in glomerular filtration rate, urinary albumin or total protein excretion, cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol (C), LDL-C, glucose, insulin, or high-sensitivity C-reactive protein.
CONCLUSION:
This study has shown that omega3FA reduce blood pressure, heart rate and triglycerides in patients with CKD. CoQ had no independent effect on blood pressure but increased heart rate. These results show that omega3FA lower blood pressure and may reduce cardiovascular risk in nondiabetic patients with moderate-to-severe CK

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