Archive for July, 2011

Omega 3 Fish Oil EPA and DHA on Metabolic Rate, Body Composition and Coritsol natural sports nutrition

Friday, July 29th, 2011

Effects of supplemental omega 3 fish oil on resting metabolic rate, body composition, and salivary cortisol in healthy adults. Journal International Soc Sports Nutrition . Oct 8;7:31.
BACKGROUND: To determine the effects of supplemental Omega 3 fish oil (FO) on resting metabolic rate (RMR), body composition, and cortisol production in healthy adults.

METHODS: A total of 44 men and women (34 ± 13y, mean+SD) participated in the study. All testing was performed first thing in the morning following an overnight fast. Baseline measurements of RMR were measured using indirect calorimetry using a facemask, and body composition was measured using air displacement plethysmography. Saliva was collected via passive drool and analyzed for cortisol concentration using ELISA. Following baseline testing, subjects were randomly assigned in a double blind manner to one of two groups: 4 g/d of Safflower Oil (SO); or 4 g/d of FO supplying 1,600 mg/d eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and 800 mg/d docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). All tests were repeated following 6 wk of treatment. Pre to post differences were analyzed using a treatment X time repeated measures ANOVA, and correlations were analyzed using Pearson’s r.

RESULTS: Compared to the SO group, there was a significant increase in fat free mass following treatment with FO (FO = +0.5 ± 0.5 kg, SO = -0.1 ± 1.2 kg, p = 0.03), a significant reduction in fat mass (FO = -0.5 ± 1.3 kg, SO = +0.2 ± 1.2 kg, p = 0.04), and a tendency for a decrease in body fat percentage (FO = -0.4 ± 1.3% body fat, SO = +0. 3 ± 1.5% body fat, p = 0.08). No significant differences were observed for body mass (FO = 0.0 ± 0.9 kg, SO = +0.2 ± 0.8 kg), RMR (FO = +17 ± 260 kcal, SO = -62 ± 184 kcal) or respiratory exchange ratio (FO = -0.02 ± 0.09, SO = +0.02 ± 0.05). There was a tendency for salivary cortisol to decrease in the FO group (FO = -0.064 ± 0.142 μg/dL, SO = +0.016 ± 0.272 μg/dL, p = 0.11). There was a significant correlation in the FO group between change in cortisol and change in fat free mass (r = -0.504, p = 0.02) and fat mass (r = 0.661, p = 0.001).

CONCLUSION: 6 wk of supplementation with omega 3 fish oil significantly increased lean mass and decreased fat mass. These changes were significantly correlated with a reduction in salivary cortisol following Omega 3 fish oil treatment.

Hormonal and Metabolic Effects of omega 3 essential fatty acid fish oils in Women with PCOS

Friday, July 29th, 2011

helan N, O’Connor A, Kyaw Tun T, et al. Hormonal and metabolic effects of omega 3 essential fatty acid fish oil  in young women with polycystic ovary syndrome: results from a cross-sectional analysis and a randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover trial. Am J
BACKGROUND: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is characterized by an adverse metabolic profile. Although dietary changes are advocated, optimal nutritional management remains uncertain. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), particularly long-chain (LC) n-3 (omega-3) PUFAs, improve metabolic health, but their therapeutic potential in PCOS is unknown.

OBJECTIVES: We aimed to determine the associations between plasma PUFAs and metabolic and hormonal aspects of PCOS to investigate the efficacy of LC n-3 PUFA supplementation and to support the findings with mechanistic cellular studies.

DESIGN: We selected a cross-sectional PCOS cohort (n = 104) and conducted a principal component analysis on plasma fatty acid profiles. Effects of LC n-3 PUFA supplementation on fasting and postprandial metabolic and hormonal markers were determined in PCOS subjects (n = 22) by a randomized, crossover, placebo-controlled intervention. Direct effects of n-6 (omega-6) compared with n-3 PUFAs on steroidogenesis were investigated in primary bovine theca cells.

RESULTS: Cross-sectional data showed that a greater plasma n-6 PUFA concentration and n-6:n-3 PUFA ratio were associated with higher circulating androgens and that plasma LC n-3 PUFA status was associated with a less atherogenic lipid profile. LC n-3 PUFA supplementation reduced plasma bioavailable testosterone concentrations (P < 0.05), with the greatest reductions in subjects who exhibited greater reductions in plasma n-6:n-3 PUFA ratios. The treatment of bovine theca cells with n-6 rather than with n-3 PUFAs up-regulated androstenedione secretion (P < 0.05).

CONCLUSIONS: Cross-sectional data suggest that PUFAs modulated hormonal and lipid profiles and that supplementation with LC n-3 PUFAs improves androgenic profiles in PCOS. In bovine theca cells, arachidonic acid modulated androstenedione secretion, which suggests an indirect effect of n-3 PUFAs through the displacement or increased competition with n-6 PUFAs.

Consumption Of Omega-3 essential Fatty acid fish oils Decrease Homocysteine Levels In Diabetic Patients

Friday, July 29th, 2011

Consumption Of Omega-3 FAs Decrease Homocysteine Levels In Diabetic Patients
Pooya S, Jalali MD, Jazayery AD, et al. The efficacy of omega-3 fatty acid supplementation on plasma homocysteine and malondialdehyde levels of type 2 diabetic patients. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2009;18.
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Cardiovascular diseases are the major cause of mortality among diabetic patients. The concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA) and homocysteine is believed to play a role in cardiovascular diseases. Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation could be effective in some diabetes complications and in the control of the glycemic index. However, it may increase lipid peroxidation. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of omega-3 fatty acids on the concentration of homocysteine and MDA in diabetic patients.

METHODS AND RESULTS: A randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial was conducted on 81 patients with type 2 diabetes. The patients were randomly assigned to either the treatment or control groups. Each subject received three capsules of omega-3 fatty acids or a placebo every day for a period of 2months. The two groups were similar in terms of body mass index and food intake. At the beginning of the study and after 2months of supplementation their levels of HbA(1)c, homocysteine, MDA, C-reactive protein (CRP), total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and fasting blood sugar (FBS) were determined. Due to omega-3 fatty acid supplementation, homocysteine was changed significantly in both treatment and control groups up to -3.10mumol/L and 0.10mumol/L respectively, and HbA(1)c decreased by 0.75% in the treatment group and increased by 0.26% in the control group. However, the changes in fasting blood sugar (FBS), malondialdehyde (MDA), C-reactive protein (CRP), total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol levels were not significant.

CONCLUSION: The consumption of omega-3 fatty acid supplements (3g/day) for 2months decreases the levels of homocysteine in diabetic patients with no change in FBS, MDA and CRP levels.

Omega 3 essential fatty acid treatment in autism shows 33% improvement for ASD

Friday, July 29th, 2011

The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy and safety of omega-3 fatty acids for children with autistic spectrum disorder (ASD).

METHODS:
This was an open-label pilot study. Ten children aged 4-7 years old with ASD according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4(th) edition (DSM-IV), were given 1 gram daily of omega-3 fatty acids for 12 weeks. The main outcome measure used was the Autism Treatment Evaluation Checklist (ATEC).

RESULTS:
Of the 9 subjects who completed the study, 8 showed improvement of about 33% on the Autism Treatment Evaluation Checklist (ATEC). None worsened and no side effects were reported.

Journal of  Child Adolescent  Psychopharmacol.
Omega-3 fatty acids appear to be safe and might be helpful for children suffering from ASD. Further study is needed with a larger number of children in a double-blind design and with various doses of omega-3 fatty acids.

Low plasma levels of Omega3 essential fatty acid EPA are associated with bipolar disorder

Friday, July 29th, 2011

Low plasma levels of EPA are associated with bipolar disorder
Sublette M, Bosetti F, DeMar J, et al. Plasma free polyunsaturated fatty acid levels are associated with symptom severity in acute mania. Bipolar Disorder / Manic Depression
OBJECTIVES: Nutritionally essential polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have been implicated as potentially important factors in mood disorders. For instance, n-3 PUFA supplementation is reported to improve outcomes in major depressive disorder and bipolar disorder. However, the role of PUFAs in acute mania has been minimally investigated. We performed a pilot study to compare plasma levels of free (non-esterified) and esterified PUFAs between patients in an acute manic episode and healthy volunteers, and to explore associations between symptom severity and levels of fatty acids and of the arachidonic acid metabolite, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2).

METHODS: Patients (n=10) who were medication-free for at least two weeks and seeking inpatient admission for an acute manic episode were compared with healthy volunteers (n=10). Symptom severity was assessed at admission and after six weeks of naturalistic treatment. Fasting baseline free and esterified plasma levels of docosahexaneoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n-3), arachidonic acid (AA,20:4n-6) and the AA metabolite PGE2 were determined, and PGE2 levels were tested again at six weeks.

RESULTS: No between-group differences were found in levels of individual or total fatty acids, or of PGE2. Among subjects, manic symptom severity correlated negatively with levels of free AA and free EPA, and positively with the free AA:EPA ratio. PGE2 levels did not differ between groups or in subjects pre- and post-treatment.

CONCLUSIONS: Our preliminary results suggest that, in susceptible persons, low plasma levels of free EPA compared with AA are related to the severity of mania.

Omega-3 Fatty Acid Supplementation And Reduction Of Traumatic axonal Injury

Thursday, July 28th, 2011

Department of Neurosurgery, West Virginia University School of Medicine, Morgantown, West Virginia, USA. jmills@hsc.wvu.edu
Abstract
OBJECT:
Traumatic brain injury remains the most common cause of death in persons under 45 years of age in the Western world. Recent evidence from animal studies suggests that supplementation with omega-3 fatty acid (O3FA) (particularly eicosapentaenoic acid [EPA] and docosahexaenoic acid [DHA]) improves functional outcomes following focal neural injury. The purpose of this study is to determine the benefits of O3FA supplementation following diffuse axonal injury in rats.

METHODS:
Forty adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were used. Three groups of 10 rats were subjected to an impact acceleration injury and the remaining group underwent a sham-injury procedure (surgery, but no impact injury). Two of the groups subjected to the injury were supplemented with 10 or 40 mg/kg/day of O3FA; the third injured group served as an unsupplemented control group. The sham-injured rats likewise received no O3FA supplementation. Serum fatty acid levels were determined from the isolated plasma phospholipids prior to the injury and at the end of the 30 days of supplementation. After the animals had been killed, immunohistochemical analysis of brainstem white matter tracts was performed to assess the presence of β-amyloid precursor protein (APP), a marker of axonal injury. Immunohistochemical analyses of axonal injury mechanisms-including analysis for caspase-3, a marker of apoptosis; RMO-14, a marker of neurofilament compaction; and cytochrome c, a marker of mitochondrial injury-were performed.

RESULTS:
Dietary supplementation with a fish oil concentrate rich in EPA and DHA for 30 days resulted in significant increases in O3FA serum levels: 11.6% ± 4.9% over initial levels in the 10 mg/kg/day group and 30.7% ± 3.6% in the 40 mg/kg/day group. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed significantly (p < 0.05) decreased numbers of APP-positive axons in animals receiving O3FA supplementation: 7.7 ± 14.4 axons per mm(2) in the 10 mg/kg/day group and 6.2 ± 11.4 axons per mm(2) in the 40 mg/kg/day group, versus 182.2 ± 44.6 axons per mm(2) in unsupplemented animals. Sham-injured animals had 4.1 ± 1.3 APP-positive axons per mm(2). Similarly, immunohistochemical analysis of caspase-3 expression demonstrated significant (p < 0.05) reduction in animals receiving O3FA supplementation, 18.5 ± 28.3 axons per mm(2) in the 10 mg/kg/day group and 13.8 ± 18.9 axons per mm(2) in the 40 mg/kg/day group, versus 129.3 ± 49.1 axons per mm(2) in unsupplemented animals.

CONCLUSIONS:
Dietary supplementation with a fish oil concentrate rich in the O3FAs EPA and DHA increases serum levels of these same fatty acids in a dose-response effect. Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation significantly reduces the number of APP-positive axons at 30 days postinjury to levels similar to those in uninjured animals. Omega-3 fatty acids are safe, affordable, and readily available worldwide to potentially reduce the burden of traumatic brain injury.

Long-chain omega-3 fatty acids (fish oil) for indicated prevention of psychotic disorders

Thursday, July 28th, 2011

CONTEXT:
The use of antipsychotic medication for the prevention of psychotic disorders is controversial. Long-chain omega-3 (omega-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) may be beneficial in a range of psychiatric conditions, including schizophrenia. Given that omega-3 PUFAs are generally beneficial to health and without clinically relevant adverse effects, their preventive use in psychosis merits investigation.
OBJECTIVE:
To determine whether omega-3 PUFAs reduce the rate of progression to first-episode psychotic disorder in adolescents and young adults aged 13 to 25 years with subthreshold psychosis.
SETTING:
Psychosis detection unit of a large public hospital in Vienna, Austria.
PARTICIPANTS:
Eighty-one individuals at ultra-high risk of psychotic disorder.
INTERVENTIONS:
A 12-week intervention period of 1.2-g/d omega-3 PUFA or placebo was followed by a 40-week monitoring period; the total study period was 12 months.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:
The primary outcome measure was transition to psychotic disorder. Secondary outcomes included symptomatic and functional changes. The ratio of omega-6 to omega-3 fatty acids in erythrocytes was used to index pretreatment vs posttreatment fatty acid composition.
RESULTS:
Seventy-six of 81 participants (93.8%) completed the intervention. By study’s end (12 months), 2 of 41 individuals (4.9%) in the omega-3 group and 11 of 40 (27.5%) in the placebo group had transitioned to psychotic disorder (P = .007). The difference between the groups in the cumulative risk of progression to full-threshold psychosis was 22.6% (95% confidence interval, 4.8-40.4). omega-3 Polyunsaturated fatty acids also significantly reduced positive symptoms (P = .01), negative symptoms (P = .02), and general symptoms (P = .01) and improved functioning (P = .002) compared with placebo. The incidence of adverse effects did not differ between the treatment groups.
CONCLUSIONS:
Long-chain omega-3 PUFAs reduce the risk of progression to psychotic disorder and may offer a safe and efficacious strategy for indicated prevention in young people with subthreshold psychotic states. Trial Registration clinicaltrials.gov Identifier:

Supplementation with omega 3 fish oil increases first-line chemotherapy efficacy in patients

Thursday, July 28th, 2011

BACKGROUND:
Palliative chemotherapy is aimed at increasing survival and palliating symptoms. However, the response rate to first-line chemotherapy in patients with nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is less than 30%. Experimental studies have shown that supplementation with omega 3  fish oil (FO) can increase chemotherapy efficacy without negatively affecting nontarget tissue. This study evaluated whether the combination of omega3 and fish oil and chemotherapy (carboplatin with vinorelbine or gemcitabine) provided a benefit over standard of care (SOC) on response rate and clinical benefit from chemotherapy in patients with advanced NSCLC.

METHODS:
Forty-six patients completed the study, n = 31 in the SOC group and n = 15 in the Omega 3 Fish oil  group (2.5 g EPA + DHA/day). Response to chemotherapy was determined by clinical examination and imaging. Response rate was defined as the sum of complete response plus partial response, and clinical benefit was defined as the sum of complete response, partial response, and stable disease divided by the number of patients. Toxicities were graded by a nurse before each chemotherapy cycle. Survival was calculated 1 year after study enrollment.

RESULTS:
Patients in the omega 3 fish oil group had an increased response rate and greater clinical benefit compared with the SOC group (60.0% vs 25.8%, P = .008; 80.0% vs 41.9%, P = .02, respectively). The incidence of dose-limiting toxicity did not differ between groups (P = .46). One-year survival tended to be greater in the FO group (60.0% vs 38.7%; P = .15).

CONCLUSIONS:
Compared with SOC, supplementation with omega 3 fish oil  results in increased chemotherapy efficacy without affecting the toxicity profile and may contribute to increased survival. Cancer 2011;. © 2011 American Cancer Society.

Copyright © 2011 American Cancer Society.

Oral fish oil restores striatal dopamine release after traumatic brain injury.

Thursday, July 28th, 2011

Omega 3 Fish oil taken orally  restores striatal dopamine release after traumatic brain injury.

Brain Trauma Research Center, Department of Neurosurgery, University of Pittsburgh, 3434 Fifth Ave, Suite 201, Pittsburgh, PA 15260, USA.
Abstract
Omega-3 fatty acid administration can affect the release of neurotransmitters and reduce inflammation and oxidative stress, but its use in traumatic brain injury (TBI) has not been described extensively. We investigated the effect of 7 day oral fish oil treatment in the recovery of potassium evoked dopamine release after TBI. Sham rats and TBI rats were given either olive oil or fish oil orally and were subject to cerebral microdialysis. Olive oil treated TBI rats showed significant dopamine release deficit compared to sham rats, and this deficit was restored with oral fish oil treatment. There was no effect of fish oil treatment on extracellular levels of dopamine metabolites such as 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid and homovanillic acid. These results suggest the therapeutic potential of omega-3 fatty acids in restoring dopamine neurotransmission deficits after TBI.

Omega 3 fish oil potential anti cancer linked with decrease in tumour formation.

Thursday, July 28th, 2011

Suppressed liver tumorigenesis in fat-1 mice with elevated omega-3 fatty acids is associated with increased omega-3 derived lipid mediators and reduced TNF-α.

Weylandt KH, Krause LF, Gomolka B, Chiu CY, Bilal S, Nadolny A, Waechter SF, Fischer A, Rothe M, Kang JX.
Source

Laboratory for Lipid Medicine and Technology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02114, USA. karsten.weylandt@charite.de
Abstract
Liver tumors, particularly hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), are a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The development of HCC is mostly associated with chronic inflammatory liver disease of various etiologies. Previous studies have shown that omega-3 (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) dampen inflammation in the liver and decrease formation of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α. In this study, we used the fat-1 transgenic mouse model, which endogenously forms n-3 PUFA from n-6 PUFA to determine the effect of an increased n-3 PUFA tissue status on tumor formation in the diethylnitrosamine (DEN)-induced liver tumor model. Our results showed a decrease in tumor formation, in terms of size and number, in fat-1 mice compared with wild-type littermates. Plasma TNF-α levels and liver cyclooxygenase-2 expression were markedly lower in fat-1 mice. Furthermore, there was a decreased fibrotic activity in the livers of fat-1 mice. Lipidomics analyses of lipid mediators revealed significantly increased levels of the n-3 PUFA-derived 18-hydroxyeicosapentaenoic acid (18-HEPE) and 17-hydroxydocosahexaenoic acid (17-HDHA) in the livers of fat-1 animals treated with DEN. In vitro experiments showed that 18-HEPE and 17-HDHA could effectively suppress lipopolysacharide-triggered TNF-α formation in a murine macrophage cell line. The results of this study provide evidence that an increased tissue status of n-3 PUFA suppresses liver tumorigenesis, probably through inhibiting liver inflammation. The findings also point to a potential anticancer role for the n-3 PUFA-derived lipid mediators 18-HEPE and 17-HDHA, which can downregulate the important proinflammatory and proproliferative factor TNF-α.

PMID: 21421544 [PubMed - in process] PMCID: PMC3106436 [Available on 2012/6/1]

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