Archive for December, 2010

Omega 3 stronger than any other anti inflammatory

Wednesday, December 15th, 2010

GPR120 Is an Omega-3 Fatty Acid Receptor Mediating Potent Anti-inflammatory and Insulin-Sensitizing Effects”

Omega-3s may reduce inflammation by acting on a receptor found in fat tissue and on inflammatory immune cells called macrophages, according to research.

The new research published in the journal Cell, suggests the mechanisms behind omega-3’s actions as an anti-inflammatory are due to its action on G-protein-coupled receptor 120 (GPR120) working as an omega-3  FA receptor/sensor.

“Omega-3s are very potent activators of GPR120 on macrophages – more potent than any other anti-inflammatory we’ve ever seen,” said lead researcher Dr Jerrold Olefsky of the University of California, San Diego.

Anti-inflammatory

Omega-3 fatty acids have been long associated with anti-inflammatory effects; however the mechanisms behind such effects have been poorly understood.

GPR120 is a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCRs) – part of a group involved in many important cell functions, and is the target of many drugs.

Previous research has suggested that five GPCRs – including GPR120 included – respond well respond to free fatty acids.

Since chronic tissue inflammation is linked to insulin resistance in obesity, the researchers used GPR120 knock-out mice to investigate if omega-3 leads to GPR120-mediated anti-inflammatory and insulin sensitizing effects in vivo.

Robust effect

Researchers found that GPR120 functions as an omega-3 receptor in pro-inflammatory macrophages and mature adipocytes.

When knock-out mice were fed a high-fat diet and treated with omega-3 fatty acids, they showed all the signs of inflammation and the insulin resistance that leads to diabetes with omega-3 having no effect.

Normal mice on a high-fat diet still gained weight, however, omega-3s “had a really robust effect in preventing inflammation,” Olefsky said.

The study also observed that by signalling through GPR120, omega-3 fatty acids mediate potent anti-inflammatory effects to inhibit certain key inflammatory signaling pathways.

The study reports that omega-3 treatment was as effective – or in some cases more effective – than the popular insulin-sensitizing drug Rosiglitazone.

The researchers noted that activation of GPR120 by omega-3s blocks not one, but all inflammatory pathways.

Interpretation

Olefsky said his team focused on GPR120 from the beginning because of where it is found – in fat tissue and on macrophages. Olefsky noted that if your goal is to fight inflammation then “that’s just where you’d want them to be expressed.”

How these findings can be interpreted for humans is not yet clear, but with a growing trend in omega-3 supplementation and increased dietary intakes of omega-3 a goal for many consumers.

Olefski says it is too early to make any formal reccomendations at the moment, but highlights that he does not see any problem with people taking omega-3 supplementations “as long as it isn’t in enormous doses.”

Olefski said that further research needs to be conducted into several – currently unknown – omega-3 mechanisms. For one, omega-3s seems to block the migration of macrophage cells into tissues – “It’s a remarkable effect, and we don’t know its action,” he added.

Source: Cell

Vol 142(5) pp. 687 – 698, doi: 10.1016/j.cell.2010.07.041

“GPR120 Is an Omega-3 Fatty Acid Receptor Mediating Potent Anti-inflammatory and Insulin-Sensitizing Effects”


Omega 3 EPA reduces LDL cholesterol levels – TakeOmega3 has 750mg EPA per capsule

Wednesday, December 15th, 2010

New clinical study results presented at the American Heart Association Scientific Sessions show that the long-chain omega-3 fatty acid EPA (eicosapentaenoic acid), helped significantly reduce small dense LDL (bad) cholesterol levels.

“This study suggests that supplementation with the omega-3 fatty acid EPA may present unique benefits for cardiovascular health,” said Sujata K. Bhatia, M.D., Ph.D., research associate with DuPont. “EPA was shown to have advantageous effects on several biomarkers, including LDL cholesterol, small dense LDL, and lp-PLA2.”

EPA is a long-chain fatty acid that is found primarily in cold water, fatty fish like sardines anchovies mackerel  as well as some omega-3 fatty acid such as TakeOmega3 which has 750 mg EPA per capsule  and is the highest grade omega 3 available in UK . A growing body of evidence suggests that EPA is the long-chain omega-3 that supports heart health.

The study, conducted by Cardiovascular Research Associates and sponsored by DuPont, was conducted among 110 healthy individuals comparing the effects of EPA supplements to DHA (docosahexaenoic acid) supplements on cardiovascular health. The participants were placed into four study groups and examined over a six week period. During that time, each group was monitored while taking: EPA 600 mg per day; EPA 1,800 mg per day; DHA 600 mg per day; and an olive oil placebo.

The study found that in the 1,800mg EPA group, there were significant reductions of 7 percent for small dense low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, and 6 percent for lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (lp-PLA2). lp-PLA2 is an enzyme involved in vascular inflammation.
In contrast, the 600mg DHA group showed a significant increase in total small dense LDL cholesterol in both the fasting and fed state of 14.2 percent and 16.3 percent respectively.

The study results will be featured during the American Heart Association Conference poster session in Chicago

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